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Gary Schwartz

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Associate Professor and Research Associate, Institute of Human Origins
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 2402
Assoc Professor
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 2402
IHO Research Associate and Associate Professor
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 2402
IHO Research Associate and Associate Professor
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 2402
Biography

Associate Professor, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Institute of Human Origins, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

SHESC Themes: Human Origins, Evolution, and Diversity

Field Specializations: Anatomy and Morphology, Dental Anthropology, Human Growth and Development, Paleoanthropology, Life History Evolution, Evolutionary Anthropology

Education

Ph.D., Washington University (1997)

Bio

Gary Schwartz is interested in the evolutionary history of primate and human growth and development as evidenced from developing tooth tissues. Teeth grow in an incremental manner, like trees and shells, preserving a record of their growth in the form of daily lines. The rate at which teeth grow is very closely linked to all kinds of important biological variables such as brain size, gestation length, longevity, etc. Recently, Professor Schwartz has been studying how using information on the time and timing of dental development can help us understand the evolutionary history of the extended growth period so unique to modern humans. Current work using the incremental structures in teeth is also addressing fundamental questions related to the developmental bases of canine sexual dimorphism during primate evolution and the role dental development plays in life history evolution.

His work bridges the gap between comparative anatomy/morphology and evolutionary developmental biology. In conjunction with new discoveries in genetics and developmental biology, the type of information produced in his lab provides an exciting way of exploring the mechanisms that underlie morphological change during evolution. The techniques routinely used in his lab involve the preparation of histological thin sections of modern and fossil teeth for transmitted and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and computed tomography are used to examine non-invasively the internal structures of fossil teeth.

In addition to labwork, Professor Schwartz goes to the field to collect original fossil hominid material.

Representative Publications

Evans, AR, Daly, ES, Catlett, KK, Paul, KS, King, SJ, Skinner, MM, Nesse, HP, Hublin, J-J, Townsend, GC, Schwartz, GT, and Jernvall, J. (2016). A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size. Nature 530:477-480.

Glowacka, H, McFarlin, SC, Catlett, KK, Mudakikwa, A, Bromage, TG, Cranfiled, MR, Stoinski, TS, and Schwartz, GT. (2016) Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. (DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22943)

Hogg, R, Godfrey, LR, Schwartz, GT, Dirks, WD, Bromage, TG (2015) Lemur biorhythms and life history evolution. PLoS One. Aug 12;10(8):e0134210. (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134210)

Godfrey, LR, Schwartz, GT, Jungers, WL, Catlett, KK, Samonds, KE, King, SJ, Muldoon, KM, Irwin, MT, Burney, DA. (2013). Anthropoid analogues?  Life history variation in Madagascar’s giant extinct lemurs.  In: Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology, J. Masters, M. Gamba, and F. Genin (eds.), Springer. Pp. 51-60.

Kelley, J. and Schwartz, G.T. (2012). Life-history inference in the early hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus. International Journal of Primatology 33:1332-1363.

Schwartz, G.T. (2012). Growth, development, and life history throughout the evolution of Homo. Current Anthropology 53 (Suppl. 6): 395-408.

O’Mara, M.T., Gordon, A.D., Catlett, K.C., Terranova, C.J., Schwartz, G.T. (2011).  Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147: 11-20.

Catlett, K.C., Schwartz, G.T., Godfrey, L.R., and Jungers, W.L. (2010).  “Life history space”:  A multivariate analysis of life history variation in extinct and extant Malagasy lemurs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143: 391-404.

Kelley, J., and Schwartz, G.T. (2010). Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:1035-1040.

Copes, L.E., Schwartz, G.T. (2010). The scale of it all: postcanine tooth size, the taxon-level effect, and the universality of Gould’s scaling law. Paleobiology 36:188-203.

Godfrey, L. R., Jungers, W. L., Schwartz, G. T. & Irwin, M. T. (2008). Ghosts and orphans: Madagascar's vanishing ecosystems. In J. G. Fleagle & C. C. Gilbert (Ed.), Elwyn Simons: A search for origins. New York: Springer.

Ritzman, T. B., Baker, B. J. & Schwartz, G. T. (2008). A fine line: A preliminary study comparing methods of estimating ages of linear enamel hypoplasia formation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 135(3), 348-361.

Mahoney, P., Smith, T., Schwartz, G.T., Dean, M.C., and Kelley, J. (2007).  Molar crown formation in the late Miocene Asian hominoids, Sivapithecus parvada and Sivapithecus indicus. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 61-68.

Orr, C.M., Delezene, L.K., Scott, J.E., Tocheri, M., and Schwartz, G.T.  (2007). The comparative method and the inference of venom delivery systems in fossil mammals.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27:541-546.

Schwartz, G. T., Godfrey, L. R. & Mahoney, P. (2007). Inferring primate growth, development, and life history from dental microstructure: The case of the extinct giant Malagasy lemur, Megaladapis. In S. E. Bailey & J-J. Hublin (Eds.), Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution: State of the Art Research in Dental Anthropology (pp. 147-162). New York: Springer.

Gebo, D. L. & Schwartz, G. T. (2006). Foot bones from Omo: Implications for hominid evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129(4), 499-511.

Schwartz, G. T., Reid, D. J., Dean, M. C. & Zihlman, A. L. (2006). A faithful record of stressful life events recorded in the dental developmental record of a juvenile gorilla. International Journal of Primatology, 27(4), 1201-1219.

Schwartz, G. T., Miller, E. R. & Gunnell, G. F. (2005). Developmental processes, life history and canine dimorphism in primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 48(1), 97-103.

Schwartz, G. T., Jungers, W. L., Samonds, K. E., Godfrey, L. R. & Simons, E. L. (2002). Dental microstructure and life history in subfossil Malagasy lemurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(9), 6124-6129.

Dean, M. C., Leakey, M.G., Reid, D., Schrenk, F., Schwartz, G. T., Stringer, C. & Walker, A. C. (2001). Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature, 414(6864), 628-631.

Schwartz GT & Dean MC (2001). The ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115, 269-283.  

Schwartz GT, Reid DJ and Dean MC (2001). Developmental aspects of sexual dimorphism in hominoid canines. International Journal of Primatology 22, 837-860.  

Halberg F, Cornélissen G, Appenzeller O, Wallace J, Acosta MA, Schwartz GT and Dean MC. (2001). Chronomics: different multiseptans in enamel of ancient and contemporaneous teeth. Proc, 2nd Int. Symp., Workshop on Chronoastrobiology and Chronotherapy, Otemachi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo.

Schwartz, GT and Dean, MC (2000). Interpreting the hominid dentition: Ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects.  In: O’Higgins P. & Cohen, M., editors. Development, Growth and Evolution: Implications for the Study of Hominid Skeleton. London: Academic Press. pp. 207-233.

Schwartz GT, Reid DJ, Dean MC and Chandrasekera MS (2000). Aspects of tooth crown development in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a note on the possible role of sexual dimorphism in canine growth.  Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Dental Morphology. pp. 323-337.

Schwartz GT (2000a). Taxonomic and functional aspects of the patterning of enamel thicknessdistribution in extant large-bodied hominoids. American Journal of Physical  Anthropology 111, 221-244.  

Schwartz GT (2000b). Enamel thickness and the helicoidal wear plane in modern human mandibular molars. Archives of Oral Biology 45, 401-409.  

Reid DJ, Schwartz GT, Chandrasekera MS, and Dean MC (1998). A histological reconstruction of dental development in the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. Journal of Human Evolution 35, 427-448.  

Schwartz GT, Thackeray JF, Reid C and van Reenan JF (1998). Enamel thickness and the topography of the enamel-dentine junction in South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids with special reference to the Carabelli trait.  Journal of Human Evolution 35, 523-542. 

Schwartz GT (1997). Re-evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene Hyraxes (Mammalia: Procaviidae) from South Africa.  Neues Jarhbuch für Geologie und Paläeontologie, Abhandlungen. 206, 365-383. 

Schwartz GT and Kuykendall KL (1996). Enamel Structure and Development.  Evolutionary Anthropology 5, 150-151.

Schwartz GT and Conroy GC (1996). Cross-sectional geometric properties of the Otavipithecus mandible. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 99, 613-623.  

Schwartz GT, Rasmussen DT, and Smith RJ (1995). Body-size diversity & community structure of fossil hyracoids.  Journal of Mammalogy  76, 1088-1099.  

Publications
  • Godfrey, LR, Schwartz, GT, Jungers, WL, Catlett, KK, Samonds, KE, King, SJ, Muldoon, KM, Irwin, MT, Burney, DA. Anthropoid analogues? Life history variation in Madagascar’s giant extinct lemurs. Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology (2013).
  • Gary T. Schwartz. Growth, development, and life history throughout the evolution of Homo. Current Anthropology (2012).
  • Kelley, J. and Schwartz, G.T. Life-history inference in the early hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus. International Journal of Primatology (2012).
  • M. Teague O'Mara, Adam D. Gordon, Kierstin K. Catlett, Carl J. Terranova and Gary T. Schwartz. Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos. Am J Phys Anthropol (2012).
  • M. Teague O'Mara, Adam D. Gordon, Kierstin K. Catlett, Carl J. Terranova and Gary T. Schwartz. Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos. Am J Phys Anthropology (2012).
  • Catlett, K.C., Schwartz, G.T., Godfrey, L.R., and Jungers, W.L. "Life history space": A multivariate analysis of life history variation in extinct and extant Malagasy lemurs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2010).
  • Copes, L.E., Schwartz, G.T. The scale of it all: postcanine tooth size, the taxon-level effect, and the universality of Gould’s scaling law. Paleobiology (2010).
  • Kelley, J., and Schwartz, G.T. Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2010).
  • T Ritzman, B Baker, Gary Schwartz. A Fine Line: A preliminary study comparing methods of estimating ages of linear enamel hypoplasia formation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2008).
  • Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., Schwartz, G.T., and Irwin, M.T. Ghosts and orphans: Madagascar’s vanishing ecosystems. Elwyn L. Simons: A Search for Origins (2008).
  • Schwartz, G.T. and Dean M.C. Charting the chronology of developing teeth. Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology. (Series: Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology) (2008).
  • Schwartz, Gary T (Author) ,Godfrey, L R (Author) ,Mahoney, P (Author) . Inferring primate growth, development, and life history from dental microstructure: The case of the extinct giant Malagasy lemur, Megaladapis. Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution: State of the Art Research in Dental Anthropology (2007).
  • D Gebo, Gary Schwartz. Foot bones from Omo: Implications for hominid evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2006).
  • Gary Schwartz, D Reid, M Dean, A Zihlman. A faithful record of stressful life events recorded in the dental developmental record of a juvenile gorilla. International Journal of Primatology (2006).
  • L Godfrey, Gary Schwartz, K Samonds, W Jungers, K Catlett. The Secrets of Lemur Teeth. Evolutionary Anthropology (2006).
  • L Godfrey, M Ramarolahy, L Raharivony, G Randria, W Jungers, D Burney, N Vasey, Wheeler Ramilisonina, P Lemelin, L Shapiro, Gary Schwartz, S King. New discoveries of skeletal elements of Hadropithecus stenognathus from Andrahomana Cave, southeastern Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution (2006).
  • Godfrey, L R (Author) ,Jungers, W L (Author) ,Schwartz, Gary T (Author) . Ecology and extinction of Madagascar's subfossil lemurs. Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation (2006).
  • Gary Schwartz. Histologically determined age at first molar emergence in Pongo pygmaues. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl (2005).
  • Gary Schwartz, E Miller, G Gunnell. Developmental processes, life history and canine dimorphism in primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution (2005).
  • Gary Schwartz, M Dean. Sexual dimorphism in modern human permanent teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2005).
  • Gary Schwartz, P Mahoney, L Godfrey, F Cuozzo, W Jungers, G Randria. Dental development in Megaladapis edwardsi (Primates, Lemuriformes): Implications for understanding life history variation in subfossil lemurs. Journal of Human Evolution (2005).
  • L Godfrey, G Semprebon, Gary Schwartz, D Burney, W Jungers, E Flanagan, F Cuozzo, S King. New insights into old lemurs: The trophic adaptations of the Archaeolemuridae. International Journal of Primatology (2005).
  • L Godfrey, W Jungers, Gary Schwartz, P Lemelin, L Shapiro, D Burney, W Wheeler, F Cuozzo, N Vasey. New discoveries of Hadropithecus stenognathus, a subfossil lemur from Madagascar. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol (2005).
  • Schwartz, Gary T. Journal of Human Evolution. (2005).
  • Gary Schwartz, E Miller, G Gunnell. Developmental basis of canine dimorphism in early Eocene Notharctines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol (2004).
  • G Semprebon, Gary Schwartz, D Burney, W Jungers, S E Flanagan. What were the monkey lemurs of Madagascar up to. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol (2003).
  • Gary Schwartz, L Godfrey. The extinct sloth lemurs of Madagascar: Big bodies, fast teeth. Evolutionary Anthropology (2003).
  • Gary Schwartz, W Liu, L Zheng. Preliminary investigation of dental microstructure in the Yuanmou hominoid (Lufengpithecus hudienensis) Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Human Evolution (2003).
  • T Smith, M Dean, J Kelley, L Martin, D Reid, Gary Schwartz. Molar crown formation in Miocene hominoids: A preliminary synthesis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol (2003).
  • Gary Schwartz, W Jungers, K Samonds, L Godfrey, E Simons. Dental microstructure and life history in subfossil Malagasy lemurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2002).
  • Gary Schwartz, D Reid, M Dean. Developmental aspects of sexual dimorphism in hominoid canines. International Journal of Primatology (2001).
  • Gary Schwartz, M Dean. The ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2001).
  • Gary Schwartz, M Dean, D Reid, A Zihlman. Histological analysis of dental development in Gorilla. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl (2001).
  • K Samonds, Gary Schwartz, W Jungers, L Godfrey. Dental microstructure and life history in subfossil lemurs. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl (2001).
  • M Dean, M Leakey, D Reid, F Schrenk, Gary Schwartz, C Stringer, A Walker. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature (2001).
  • N Silverman, Gary Schwartz. Paleoanthropology Society, Kansas City, MO - Are the P4s of Paranthropus uniquely molarized. J. hum. Evol (2001).
Research Activity
Spring 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 452Dental Anthropology
ASB 484Internship
ASB 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 552Dental Anthropology
ASB 590Reading and Conference
ASB 592Research
ASB 790Reading and Conference
ASB 792Research
ASB 799Dissertation
Fall 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 104Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
ASB 191First-Year Seminar
ASB 484Internship
ASB 492Honors Directed Study
ASB 493Honors Thesis
ASB 499Individualized Instruction
ASB 590Reading and Conference
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASB 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASB 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASB 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
ASB 799Dissertation
Summer 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
ASB 792Research
ASM 792Research
ASB 799Dissertation
Spring 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
ASB 210Human Sexuality: Anth Perspect
ASB 492Honors Directed Study
ASB 590Reading and Conference
ASB 592Research
ASB 790Reading and Conference
ASB 792Research
ASB 799Dissertation
Fall 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 460Human Growth & Development
ASB 484Internship
ASB 492Honors Directed Study
ASB 493Honors Thesis
ASB 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASB 590Reading and Conference
ASB 592Research
ASM 592Research
ASB 790Reading and Conference
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASB 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
ASB 799Dissertation
Summer 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 792Research
Spring 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 104Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
ASM 484Internship
ASM 493Honors Thesis
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Fall 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 341Human Osteology
ASM 484Internship
ASM 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Summer 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 792Research
Spring 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 452Dental Anthropology
ASM 484Internship
ASM 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 493Honors Thesis
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 552Dental Anthropology
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Fall 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 484Internship
ASM 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 493Honors Thesis
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 560Human Growth & Development
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Summer 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 792Research
Spring 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 104Bones, Stones/Human Evolution
ASM 484Internship
ASM 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 493Honors Thesis
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Fall 2012
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 341Human Osteology
ASM 484Internship
ASM 492Honors Directed Study
ASM 499Individualized Instruction
ASM 590Reading and Conference
ASM 592Research
ASM 790Reading and Conference
ASM 792Research
ASM 799Dissertation
Summer 2012
Course NumberCourse Title
ASM 792Research