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Robert Gray

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Faculty, POLY Campus, Mailcode 2880
Biography

Rob Gray

Associate Professor in Human Systems Engineering

Arizona State University Polytechnic

Originally from Toronto, Canada, Rob completed his BA in Psychology at Queen’s University and his MS and PhD in Experimental Psychology at York University. After receiving his PhD in 1998, he worked as a Research Scientist for Nissan Motor Corporation in Cambridge, MA, USA.  In 2001 he was appointed as an Assistant Professor in the newly formed Applied Psychology Program at Arizona State University.  In 2006 he was appointed Associate Professor and Program Head.  Since 2005 he has also worked part-time as a Research Psychologist for the United States Air Force.  From January-June 2010 he was appointed as a Visiting Professor in Sport Sciences at the University of the Mediterranean in France.  From 2010-2014 he was a Reader (Associate Professor) in Perception & Action in the School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Birmingham, UK. His research focuses on perceptual-motor control with a particular emphasis on the demanding actions involved in driving, aviation, and sports. His goal is to conduct basic research that can be applied towards the improvement of training, simulation, accident prevention and human-machine interface development within these contexts. In 2007 he was awarded theDistinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology from the American Psychological Association and the Earl Alluisi Award for Early Career Achievement in the F ield of Applied Experimental & Engineering Psychology.

 

Rob is the Host & Producer of The Perception & Action Podcast which explores how psychological research can be applied to improving performance, accelerating skill acquisition and designing new technologies.

 

Twitter:  https://twitter.com/ShakeyWaits

Linkedin:  http://www.linkedin.com/pub/rob-gray/17/2b4/823

ResearchGate:  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rob_Gray/

Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=en&user=KYj42kYAAAAJ

Research Interests

Vision and perceptual motor control in driving, flying, and sports; simulation; multisensory integration

Publications

*For PDF copies please see: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rob_Gray

Book:

Gibb, R., Gray, R., & Scharff, L. (2010).  Aviation Visual Perception: Research, Misperception and Mishaps. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 

Journal Articles:  

  83 Articles Published or In Press

 Total Citations: 3726, h-index: 30 (Google Scholar)

  5 Invited Review Papers

 1 Paper Award

 

In Press:

Gray, R., Orn, A., & Woodman, T. (In press). Ironic and reinvestment effects in baseball pitching: How information about an opponent can influence performance under pressure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology

Quinton, M. L., Cumming, J., Williams, S., Allsop, J., & Gray, R. (In press) Imagery meaning and content in golf: effects of performance, anxiety and confidence. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.

Allsop, J. E., Lawrence, G. P., Gray, R., & Kahn, M. A. (In press).  The interaction between practice and performance pressure on the planning and control of fast target directed movement. Psychological Research. 

2016

McNabb, J., & Gray, R. (2016). Staying connected on the road: A comparison of different types of smart phone use in a driving simulator. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0148555. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148555

Gray, R., Winterbottom, M., & Gaska, J. (2016). Relationship between sustained, orientated, divided, and selective attention and simulated aviation performance: Training & pressure effects. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5

Ahtamad, M., Ho, C., Spence, C., & Gray, R. (2016). Warning drivers of an impending collision using vibrotactile flow. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 9, 134-141.

2015

Foerster, A., Gray, R., & Canal-Bruland, R. (2015).  Size estimates remain stable in the face of differences in performance outcome variability in an aiming task. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 47-52.

Meng, F., Ahtamad, M., Ho, C., Gray, R., & Spence, C. (2015).  Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals for rear-end collision avoidance: Toward the torso vs. toward the head.  Ergonomics, 58, 411-425.

Meng, F., Gray, R., Ho, C., Ahtamad, M., & Spence, C. (2015). Dynamic vibrotactile signals for forward collision avoidance systems.  Human Factors, 57, 329-346.

Wilkins, L. & Gray, R. (2015). The effects of stroboscopic visual training on visual attention, motion perception, and catching performance. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 121, 57-79.

Gray, R. & Canal-Bruland, R. (2015). Attentional focus, perceived target size and movement kinematics under performance pressure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1692-1700.

Gray, R.  (2015). Differences in attentional focus associated with recovery from sports injury: does injury induce an internal focus? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37, 607-616.

2014

Gray, R. (2014). Embodied perception in sport.  International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7, 72-86.  Invited paper. 

Gray, R., Ho., C., & Spence, C. (2014). A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings.  PLoS ONE, 9(1): e87070.

Gray, R., Antonio Navia, J., & Allsop, J. (2014). Action specific effects in aviation: What determines judged runway size? Perception, 43, 145-154.

Ho, C., Gray, R., & Spence, C. (2014).  Reorienting driver attention with dynamic tactile cues.  IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 7, 86-94.

Allsop, J. & Gray, R. (2014). Flying under pressure: Effects of anxiety on attention and gaze behavior in aviation. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 63-71.

Ho, C., Gray, R., & Spence, C. (2014).  To what extent do the findings of laboratory-based spatial attention research apply to the real-world setting of driving?  IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 44, 524-530

Quinton, M. L., Cumming, J., Gray, R., Geeson, J., Crowley, H., Cooper, A., & Williams, S. E. (2014). A PETTLEP imagery intervention with young athletes. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 9, 47-59.

2013

Neuman, B. L., & Gray, R. (2013). A direct comparison of the effects of imagery and action observation on hitting performance. Movement & Sport Sciences, 79, 11-21.

Ho, C., Gray, R., & Spence, C. (2013).  Role of audiovisual synchrony in driving head orienting responses.  Experimental Brain Research, 227, 467-476.

Gray, R., Spence, C., Ho. C., & Tan, H. Z. (2013).  Efficient multimodal cuing of spatial attention.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 101, 2113-2122Invited paper.

Gray, R. & Allsop, J. (2013).  Interactions between performance pressure, performance streaks and attentional focus.  Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 368-386.

Gray, R. (2013).  Being selective at the plate: Processing dependence between perceptual variables relates to hitting goals and performance.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 39,

Gray, R., Allsop, J., & Williams, S. (2013).  Changes in putting kinematics associated with choking and excelling under pressure. International Journal of Sport Psychology (Performance under Pressure Special Issue), 44, 387-407.

Wilkins, L., Gray, R., Gaska, J., & Winterbottom, M. (2013).  Motion perception & driving: Predicting performance through testing shortening braking reaction times through training.  Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54, 7977-7982.

2012

Mohd Rosli, R., Tan, H. Z., Proctor, R. W. & Gray, R.  (2011). Attentional gradient for crossmodal proximal-distal tactile cueing of visual spatial attention.  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 8, 23:1–23:12.

Gray, R., Hill, W., Neuman, B.  Houtman, D., & Potvin, R.  (2012). Effects of a blue light filtering intraocular lens on driving safety in glare conditions.  Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 5, 816-822.

Beilock, S. L., & Gray, R. (2012).  From attentional control to attentional spillover:  A skill-level investigation of attention, movement, and performance outcome relations.  Human Movement Science, 31, 1473-1499.

2011

Gray, R. Perkins, S. A., Maxwell, A. W., Suryakumar, R., & Neuman, B.  (2011).   Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 37, 38-44.

Gray, R. & Beilock, S. L.  (2011). Hitting is contagious: Experience and action induction.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 71, 49-59.

Gray, R. (2011).  Looming auditory collision warnings for driving. Human Factors, 53, 63-74. *Winner of the Jerome H. Ely Human Factors Article Award for the most outstanding paper in the 2011 volume of Human Factors

Gray, R. (2011).  Links between performance outcomes, attention and movement in skilled motor action. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 301-306.  Invited paper.

Huet, M., Jacobs, D. M., Camachon, C., Missenard, O., Gray, R., & Montagne, G. (2011).  The education of attention as explanation of variability of practice effects:  Learning the final approach phase in a flight simulator.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1841-1854.

2010

Scott, S. & Gray, R. (2010). Switching tools: Perceptual-motor recalibration to weight changes. Experimental Brain Research, 201, 177-189.

Geri, G., Gray, R., & Grutzmacher, R. (2010). Simulating time-to-contact when both target an observer are in motion. Displays, 31, 59-66.

Gray, R. (2010). Expert baseball batters have greater sensitivity in making swing decisions. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 81, 373-378.

Branaghan, R. & Gray, R. (2010). Non-conscious activation of an elderly stereotype leads to safer driving behavior. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110, 580-592. 

2009

Regan, D. & Gray, R. (2009).  Some unresolved questions in stereopsis, dynamic stereopsis and stereomotion.  Spatial Vision, 22, 1-43.

Mohebbi, R., Gray, R., & Tan, H. Z. (2009). Driver reaction time to tactile and auditory rear-end collision warnings while talking on a cell phone. Human Factors, 51, 102-110.

Lee, D. N., Bootsma, R. J., Frost, B. J., Land, M., Regan, D., & Gray, R. (2009).  Lee’s tau operator.  Perception, 38, 837 – 858. 

Gray, R. (2009). A model of motor inhibition for a complex skill: baseball batting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 91-105.

Gray, R., Mohebbi, R., & Tan. H. Z. (2009). The spatial resolution of crossmodal attention: implications for multimodal interfaces.  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 4, 1-14.

Gray, R. (2009). How do batters use visual, auditory, and tactile information about the success of a baseball swing? Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 80, 491-501.

Straughn, S., Gray, R., & Tan, H. Z. (2009).  To go or not to go: Stimulus-response compatibility and pedestrian collision warnings in driving.  IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2, 111-117.

2008

Jones, C., Gray, R., Spence, C., & Tan, H. Z. (2008). Directing visual attention with spatially informative and noninformative haptic cues.  Experimental Brain Research, 186, 659-669.

Scott, J. J. & Gray, R. (2008). Comparison of visual, auditory and tactile warnings for rear-end collision prevention in driving. Human Factors, 50, 264-275.

Gray, R., Geri, G.A., Akhtar, S.C. & Covas, C.M. (2008).  The role of visual occlusion in altitude maintenance during simulated flight.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 34, 475-488.

Gray, R. (2008). Multisensory information in the control of complex motor actions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 244-248.  Invited paper.

Gibb, R., Schvaneveldt, R. S., & Gray, R. (2008). Visual misperception in aviation: Glide path performance in a black hole environment. Human Factors, 50, 699-711.

2007

Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of different skill level.  Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 59-76.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2007). Glare susceptibility test results correlate with temporal safety margin when executing turns across approaching vehicles in simulated low–sun conditions. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 27, 440-450.

Gray, R., Beilock, S. L., & Carr, T. M. (2007).  “As soon as the bat met the ball, I knew it was gone”:  Outcome prediction, hindsight bias, and the representation and control of action in novice and expert baseball players. Psychological Bulletin & Review, 14, 669-675.

2006

Gray, R., Regan, D. Castaneda, B., & Sieffert, R. (2006).  Role of feedback in the accuracy of perceived direction of motion in depth and control of interceptive action.  Vision Research, 46, 1676-1694.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2006). Unconfounding the direction of motion, time to passage and rotation rate of an approaching object.  Vision Research, 46, 2388-2402.

Rushton, S. K. & Gray, R. (2006).  Hoyle’s observations were right on the ball. Nature, 443, 506.

2005

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2005).  Perceptual processes used by drivers during overtaking in a driving simulator.  Human Factors, 47, 394-417.

Gray, R. & Sieffert, R. (2005). Different strategies for using motion in depth information in catching.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 31, 1004-1022.

2004

Gray, R., Macuga, K. M., & Regan, D. (2004).  Long range interactions between object motion and self-motion in the perception of movement in depth.  Vision Research, 44, 179-195.

Gray, R. (2004). Attending to the execution of a complex sensorimotor skill: Expertise differences, choking and slumps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10, 42-54.

2003

Tan, H. Z., Gray, R., Young, J. J., & Traylor, R. (2003).  A haptic back display for attentional and directional cueing.  Haptics-e: The Electronic Journal of Haptics Research, 3.

2002

Gray, R. & Tan, H. Z. (2002).  Dynamic and predictive links between touch and vision.  Experimental Brain Research, 145, 50-55.

Gray, R. (2002).  “Markov at the Bat”: A model of cognitive processing in baseball batters.  Psychological Science, 13, 543-548.

Gray, R. (2002).  Behavior of college baseball players in a virtual batting task.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 1131–1148.

2001

Regan, D. & Gray, R. (2001).  Hitting what one wants to hit and missing what one wants to miss.  Vision Research, 41, 3321-3329.

Gray, R. & Thornton, I. M. (2001).  Exploring the link between time to collision and representational momentum.  Perception, 30, 1007-1017.

2000

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2000).  Estimating time to collision with a rotating nonspherical object.  Vision Research, 40, 49-63.

Regan, D. & Gray, R. (2000).Visually-guided collision avoidance and collision achievement. Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 99-107. Invited paper.

Gray, R. (2000).  Attentional modulation of motion-in-depth processing. Vision Research, 40, 1041-1050.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2000). Risky driving behavior: a consequence of motion adaptation for visually guided action.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1721-1732.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2000).  Simulated self-motion alters perceived time to collision. Current Biology.  10, 587-590.

Steeves, J. K. E., Gray, R., Regan, D. & Steinbach, M. J. (2000).  Accuracy ofestimating time to collision using only monocular information in unilaterally enucleated observers and monocularly viewing normal controls. Vision Research, 40, 83-89.

1999

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1999).  Motion in depth: Adequate and inadequate simulation. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 236-245.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1999). Adapting to expansion increases perceived time to collision.  Vision Research, 39,  3602-3607.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1999).  Do monocular estimates of time to collision  necessarily involve perceived distance ? Perception, 28, 1257 - 1264.

1998

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1998). Accuracy of estimating time to collision using binocular and monocular information.  Vision Research, 38, 499-512.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1998).  Spatial frequency discrimination and detection for texture-defined gratings. Vision Research, 38, 2601-2617.

1997

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1997).  Vernier step acuity and bisection acuity for texture-defined form. Vision Research, 37, 1713-1723.  

1996

Regan, D., Gray, R., & Hamstra, S. J. (1996).  Evidence for a neural mechanism that encodes angles.   Vision Research, 36, 323-330. 

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1996). Cyclopean motion produced by oscillations of size, disparity and location.  Vision Research, 36, 655-665.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1996).  Accuracy of reproducing angles: Is a right angle special ? Perception, 25, 531-542. 

1995

Regan, D., Hamstra, S. J., Kaushal, S., Vincent, A., Gray, R., & Beverley, K. I. (1995).  Visual processing of an object's motion in three dimensions for a stationary or a moving observer. Perception, 24, 87-103. 

 

Book Chapters/Entries

McNeese, N., Cooke, N., Fedele, M., & Gray, R.  (2017). Knowledge elicitation methods for developing insights into team cognition during team sports.  In P. Salmon and A.-C. Macquet (Eds.), Advances in Human Factors in Sports and Outdoor Recreation. pp. 3-15.

McNeese, N., Cooke, N., Fedele, M., & Gray, R.  (2016). Perspectives on Team Cognition and Team Sports. In Raab, M., Wylleman, P., Seiler, R., Elbe, A-M., Haztzigeorgiadis, A.  Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: From Theory to Practice. pp. 123-141.

Gray, R. (2015).  Movement automaticity in sport.  J. Baker and D. Farrow (Eds.), The Handbook of Sport Expertise. pp 74-83.

Gray, R. (2014). Attention-Performance Relationships.  B. Eklund and G. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. SAGE Publishing.

Gray, R. (2014). Automaticity.  B. Eklund and G. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. SAGE Publishing.

Gray, R. (2009).  Intercepting moving objects: Fundamental principles learned from baseball.  Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics, Volume 5.  Pp 114-139.  Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors & Ergonomics Society.

Beilock, S. L., & Gray, R. (2007). Why do athletes “choke” under pressure? G. Tenenbaum and B. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology, 3rd Ed. pp. 425-444. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Gray, R. (2005).  The use and misuse of visual information for “go/no-go” decisions in driving. Hennessy, D. & Wiesenthal, D.  (Eds.).Contemporary Issues in Traffic Research and Road User Safety. pp. 125-133. New York: Nova Science Publishers. 

Gray, R. (2005).  Vision in flying, driving and sports.  In Harris, L. & Jenkin, M. (Eds.).  Seeing Spatial Form. pp. 121-151. Oxford University Press.  

Regan, D. & Gray, R. (2004).  A step by step approach to research on time to contact and time to passage.  In Hecht, H. & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (Eds.). Theories of Time-to-Contact. Advances in Psychology, 135.  pp. 173-228.  Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (2004).  The use of binocular time to contact information.  In Hecht, H. & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (Eds.). Theories of Time-to-Contact. Advances in Psychology, 135. pp. 303-325.  Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

Regan, D., Gray, R. Portfors, C. V., Hamstra, S. J., Vincent, A., Hong, X. H. & Kohly, R. (1998).  Catching, hitting and collision avoidance. In Harris, L. & Jenkin, M.(Eds.). Vision and Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Peer-Reviewed Conference Papers

Gray, R. & Regan, D. (1999). Estimating time to collision with a rotating nonspherical object.  Studies in Perception and Action 10, 100-103. International Conference on Perception and Action. Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug 7-14, 1999

Gray, R. (2001).  Perceptual and cognitive strategies used by baseball batters. Proceedings of the International Society of Sports Psychology 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology, 22-24.

Tan, H. Z., Gray, R. &  Young, J. J. (2001).  Haptic cueing of a visual change detection task:  Implications for multi-modal interfaces.  In Usability Evaluation and Interface Design: Cognitive Engineering, Intelligent Agents and Virtual Reality (Vol. 1 of the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction), M. J. Smith, G. Salvendy, D. Harris, and R. J. Koubek (Eds.), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 678-682, 2001.

Gray, R., Tan, H. Z. &  Young, J. J. (2003). Do multimodal signals need to come from the same place?  Crossmodal attentional links between proximal and distal surfaces.  Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, IEEE CS Press.

Young, J. J., Tan, H. Z. &  Gray, R. (2003). Validity of haptic cues and its effect on priming visual spatial attention. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, IEEE Computer Society, Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 22-23, pp. 166-170, 2003.

Lebiere, C., Gray. R., Salvucci, D., & West, R. (2003).  Choice and learning under uncertainty: A case study in baseball batting.  Proceedings of 2003 Cognitive Science Conference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gurascio-Howard, L. & Gray, R. (2004).  Using kinematics to assess software usability and ergonomic risk factors.  Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 48th Annual Meeting.

Wood, C., Gray, R., Young, J. & Summers, J. (2003).  Inattentional blindness while driving.  Proceedings of the  Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Park City UT, July 21-24, 2003.

Young, J. J., Tan, H. Z. & Gray, R. (2005). Directing visual attention with spatially informative and noninformative haptic cues. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.

Castaneda, B. & Gray, R. (2005). Effects of attention on performance in baseball batting.  Studies in Perception and Action, VII.

Proctor, R. W., Tan, H. Z., Vu, K. L., Gray, R. & Spence, C. (2005). Implications of compatibility and cuing effects for multimodal interfaces. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.

Gray, R. (2006). Expertise differences in attentional control between and within baseball batters. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, 1652-1655.

Gibb, R. & Gray, R. (2006). The terrain orientation theory for visual guidance of approach and landing.  Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting,1661-1665.

Jones, C. M., Young, J. J., Gray, R. Spence, C., &  Tan, H. Z. (2007).  An eyetracker study of the haptic cuing of visual attention. Proceedings of the World Haptics Conference.

Gray, R. (2007). Predicting the effects of disability glare on driving performance. Driver Assessment 2007 Proceedings. University of Iowa Public Policy Center.

Scott, J. J. & Gray, R. (2007). Comparison of driver brake reactions times to multimodal rear-end collision warnings. Driver Assessment 2007 Proceedings. Iowa City, IA.: University of Iowa Public Policy Center. *Co-winner of the Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award

Mohebbi, R. & Gray, R. (2007). Perceptual-motor control strategies for left-turn execution. Driver Assessment 2007 Proceedings. Iowa City, IA.: University of Iowa Public Policy Center. *Co-winner of the Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award

Gray, R. (2007). 2D vs. 3D visual cues for altitude maintenance in low-altitude flight.  Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting.

Kuzel, M., Heller, M. F., Gray, R., Straughn, S., & DiJorio, S. (2008).  Perception and cognition during walking while concurrently using a cell phone. Contemporary Ergonomics 2008, Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.

Branaghan, R. & Gray, R. (2008). Non-conscious activation of an elderly stereotype leads to safer driving behavior.  Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting.

Branaghan, R. & Gray, R. (2008).  Thinking Old Leads to Driving Slow: Non-Conscious Primes and Driving Behavior. Proceedings of the American Psychological Society Annual Meeting.

Kuzel, M.J., Heller, M.F. , Sala, J.B., Ciccarelli, L. , & Gray, R.  (2008). A review of real-world collisions involving distracted pedestrians. Proceedings of the Annual Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference.

Gray, R. & Branaghan, R. (2009). Changing driver behavior through unconscious stereotype activation .  Driver Assessment 2009 Proceedings. Iowa City, IA.: University of Iowa Public Policy Center. 

Tan, H. Z., Gray, R., Spence, C., Jones, C. M., & Rosli, R. M. (2009).  Haptic cueing of visual spatial attention and evidence of spotlight effect.  (invited paper for special session on Haptics), Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XIV, B. E. Rogowitz & T. N. Pappas (Eds.), SPIE Vol. 7240-72400I, San Jose, CA, 12 pp., Jan. 18–22, 2009.

Maxwell, W. A. & Gray, R. (2011). Impact of glare on driving performance in patients implanted with blue-light filtering intraocular lenses.  Proceedings of the American Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery Symposium & Congress, March 25-29, San Diego, CA.

Perkins, S. A. & Gray, R. (2011). Blue light filtering intraocular lenses reduce glare disability and improve driving performance in pseudophakic subjects.  Proceedings of the American Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery Symposium & Congress, March 25-29, San Diego, CA.

Gray, R. (2011).  Visual-motor control in baseball batting.  Invited Paper.  Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision.  July 15-18, Hong Kong.

Gray, R. (2011). Attention, Performance Pressure and Motor Control in Sports.  Invited Keynote Paper14ème Congrès International de l’ACAPS (Association des Chercheurs en Activités Physiques et Sportives).  Oct 24-26, Rennes, France.

Kuzel, M. & Gray, R. (2012). Motorists overtaking bicyclists: Analysis of driver behavior in a simulated driving environment.  Presented at the 1st International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation.  July 21-25, 2012, San Francisco, CA.  Invited Paper. 

Ho, C., Spence, C., & Gray, R. (2013). Looming auditory and vibrotactile collision warnings for safe driving. Proceedings of the 7th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 551-557.

Ahtamad, M., Gray, R. Ho, C., Reed, N., & Spence, C. (2015). Informative collision warnings: Effect of modality and driver age. Proceedings of the 8th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 324-330.

Morice, H. P., Violaine, S., Gray, R., & Montange, G. (2015). Effect of helmet design on motorcycle steering behavior. Proceedings of the 8th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, 57-62.

Gray, R. (2015). The money ball problem: What is the best way to present situational statistics to an athlete? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2015 International Annual Meeting.

McNeese, N., Cooke, N., Fedele, M., & Gray, R.  (2015). Theoretical and methodical approaches to studying team cognition in sports, Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1211-1218Presented at the6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015).

Allsop, J., Gray, R. & Chuang, L. (2016). Effects of anxiety and cognitive load on instrument scanning behavior in flight simulation. ETVIS 2016 (Second Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization).

Del Rio, E., Branaghan, R., & Gray, R. (2016). Design features of wearable AR information display for surgery and anesthesiology. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2016 International Annual Meeting

Research Activity
  • Gray,Robert D*. Research and analysis of human behavior in accident events. (3/1/2015 - 12/30/2015).
  • Gray,Robert D*. Professional and technical support to assist the USAFSAM Ophthalmology Branch in designing and building the AVT software. TASC(12/11/2014 - 4/12/2015).
  • Gray,Robert D*, Branaghan,Russell Joseph, Schvaneveldt,Roger W. MRI: Acquisition of an Advanced Driving Simulator for Safety Research and Education. NSF-ENG-BCS(9/15/2007 - 8/31/2008).
  • Gray,Robert D*. Sensory Integration of Multimodal Human Computer Interfaces. NSF-CISE(11/1/2005 - 10/31/2009).
  • Gray,Robert D*. CAREER: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RESEARCH ON COLLISION CONTROL. NSF-SBE(8/15/2003 - 7/31/2008).
Summer 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
HSE 422Human Factors in Sport
PSY 531Multiple Regression/Psych Res
HSE 592Research
HSE 593Applied Project
HSE 599Thesis
HSE 792Research
HSE 799Dissertation
Spring 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
HSE 423Human Factors/Transportation
HSE 499Individualized Instruction
HSE 592Research
HSE 599Thesis
HSE 792Research
HSE 799Dissertation
Fall 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
HSE 422Human Factors in Sport
HSE 430Stats Human Sys Research II
HSE 493Honors Thesis
HSE 499Individualized Instruction
PSY 530Intermed Statistics
HSE 592Research
HSE 599Thesis
SMC 792Research
Summer 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 449Human Factors in Sport
PSY 494Special Topics
PSY 531Multiple Regression/Psych Res
PSY 592Research
PSY 599Thesis
Spring 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 330Statistical Methods
PSY 399Supervised Research
PSY 448Human Factors/Transportation
PSY 499Individualized Instruction
PSY 592Research
SMC 792Research
Fall 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 330Statistical Methods
PSY 399Supervised Research
PSY 449Human Factors in Sport
PSY 530Intermed Statistics
PSY 592Research
PSY 599Thesis
SMC 792Research
Summer 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 449Human Factors in Sport
PSY 592Research
Spring 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 399Supervised Research
PSY 499Individualized Instruction
SMC 541Foundation Simulation Modeling
PSY 592Research
PSY 593Applied Project
PSY 599Thesis
SMC 792Research
Fall 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
PSY 530Intermed Statistics
Presentations
  • Gray, Robert. Haptic Information in Driving and Sports. Annual Meeting of the Tactile Research Group (Nov 2006).
  • Gray, Robert. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting. North American Meeting of the International Society for Ecological Psychology (Jun 2006).
  • Castaneda, B, Gray, Robert. The Effects of Attention and Expertise in a Motor-Skill Task. Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association (Apr 2005).
  • Schroeder, C, Gray, Robert. Effects of Incentive on Action Representation: A Study of Gender Dyads Performance in Simple Compatibility Tasks. Thirteenth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference (Jan 2005).
  • Gray, Robert. Attention, Perception and Skill Execution in Baseball Batting. Tenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Association for Interdisciplinary Learning (CSAIL), Symposium on Attention and Expertise in Sensorimotor Skills (Jul 2004).
  • Gray, Robert. Perception and Decision Making of Drivers during Overtaking. Western Psychological Association's 84h Annual Convention (Apr 2004).
  • Wood, C, Gray, Robert, Young, J, Summers, J. Inattentional Blindness While Driving. Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design (Jul 2003).
  • Gray, Robert. Vision in Driving, Flying and Sports. Conference to Celebrate the Career of David Martin Regan, Toronto (Jun 2003).
  • Gray, Robert. Human Factors in Driving and Sports. Arizona Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomic Society (May 2003).
  • Gray, Robert. To Hit or Not Be Hit: Visual Motor Control in Baseball and Driving. Cognitive and Perceptual Sciences Area Seminar Series (Nov 2002).
  • Gray, Robert, Salvucci, D. Modeling and Predicting Effects of Multimodal Support Systems on Complex Dynamic Tasks. Attention, Perception & Data Visualization Office of Naval Research Workshop, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (May 2002).
  • Gray, Robert. Interactions between Motion and Attention in the Control of Action. Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience (Mar 2002).
  • Gray, Robert. Don't Just Do It -Think about It: Cognitive Processing in the Control of Action. Department of Psychology Colloquium Series (Oct 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. Don't Just Do It -Think about It: Cognitive Processing in the Control of Action. Cognitive Systems and Behavior Seminar (Sep 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. Perceptual-Motor and Cognitive Strategies Used by Baseball Batters. International Conference on Perception and Action, Storrs, Connecticut (Jun 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. Human-Machine Interface Issues in the Future Car: Attentional Management and Highway Hypnosis. Arizona State University East, Mesa, AZ (Apr 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. What Can Motion After Effects Teach Us about Action and Attention?. Center for Cognitive Science (Jan 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. Vision & Action Workshop (Jan 2001).
  • Gray, Robert. What Can Motion after Effects Teach Us about Action and Attention?. (Oct 2000).
  • Gray, Robert. Through the Eyes of a Tiger: Perception & Sport. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Independent Activities Program (Jan 2000).