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Wayne Frasch

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Professor and Faculty Leader of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Faculty Group
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 4501
Biography

Wayne Frasch has developed new assays to examine the rotation of single molecules of molecular motor proteins under a microscope. His lab focuses on the Fo and F1-ATPase rotary motors that comprise the FoF1 ATP synthase. This protein complex synthesizes the majority of ATP in almost all living organisms, which provides the energy for many cellular processes.

Professor Frasch’s lab also creates nano-scale devices by assembling molecules of DNA and proteins in novel ways that can carry out specific tasks. These include the incorporation of the F1-ATPase molecular motor into devices that detect single molecules of toxins, drugs or DNA profiles of interest that can provide an early indication of infection or disease. Other nano-devices use the assembly of DNA molecules to make computations.

Education
  • Ph.D. University of Kentucky
Videos
Publications

1. Single-Molecule Studies of the FoF1 ATP Synthase Molecular Motors. We developed a novel technology that can measure the rotational position of single molecules of rotary motors with unprecedented precision, time resolution, and signal-to-noise. Using this approach, my lab has gained new insight into the mechanism of the FoF1 ATP synthase, which is responsible for >80% of the ATP in almost every living organism. This complex is composed of two rotary motors. The Fo motor uses a transmembrane proton gradient to power CW rotation, which forces F1 to synthesize ATP. Conversely, F1 can hydrolyze ATP to power CCW rotation.

a. The Fo Molecular Motor. Using our nanorod method, we have been able to resolve the rotational stepping of single c-subunits of the Fo c-ring and observed that Fo subunit-a can push the c-ring in the ATP synthesis direction against the force of F1 ATPase-dependent rotation. These results are providing important new insight into the molecular mechanism of the Fo motor. In FoF1, the Fo motor uses a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source to drive rotation in the ATP synthesis direction against the force generated by the F­1-ATPase. Single molecule studies of this motor have been limited due to the technical difficulties inherent in studying a membrane embedded protein complex. Detergent solubilized FoF1 is unstable resulting in subunit dissociation and rapid loss of activity. We overcame this problem by incorporating purified FoF­1 into lipid nanodiscs that have the physical properties of a biological membrane but are small enough for single molecule work. The use of gold nanorods to monitor rotation is the only approach capable of resolving the ~100 ms rotational stepping of Fo. Most recently, we reported that the c-subunit stepping increases inversely with pH. Since, using lipid bilayer nanodiscs, the half-channels on each side of the membrane that supply protons to the c-ring are exposed to the same pH, these results show that the proton input channel for ATP synthesis is more easily protonated than is the ATPase channel. This provides new insight concerning how the FO motor can maintain a high ratio of ATP/ADP-Pi under steady state conditions.

  • Yanagisawa, S. and Frasch, W. D. (2017) ““Protonation Dependent Stepped Rotation of the F-type ATP synthase c-Ring Observed by Single-Molecule Measurements”, J. Biol. Chem., 292, in press
  • Martin, J., Hudson, J., Hornung, T., and Frasch, W.D. (2015) “Fo-driven Power Stroke Rotation Occurs against the Force of F1ATPase-dependent rotation in the FoF1 ATP synthase”, J. Biol. Chem., 290, 10717-10728.
  • Spetzler, D., Ishmukhametov, R., Hornung, T., Martin, J., York, J., Jin-Day, L., and Frasch, W. D. (2012) “Energy Transduction by the Two Molecular Motors of the F1Fo ATP Synthase” Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 34, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 561-590.
  • Frasch, W. D. and Chapsky, L. (2012) “Polarization-Enhanced Detector with Gold Nanorods for Detecting Nanoscale Rotation and Method Therefore” U.S. Patent 8,207,323
  • Frasch, W. D. and Chapsky, L. (2011) “Polarization-Enhanced Detector with Gold Nanorods for Detecting Nanoscale Rotational Motion and method therefor” U.S. Patent 8,003,316
  • Ishmukhametov, R., Hornung, T., Spetzler, D., and Frasch, W. D. (2010), “Direct Observation of stepped proteolipid ring rotation in E. coli FoF1-ATP synthase”, EMBO J 29, 3911-3923.

b. The F1-ATPase Molecular Motor. Using our single-molecule assay, we resolved the angular velocity of F­1-ATPase rotation as a function of rotary position and found that the power stroke undergoes a series of accelerations and decelerations that can be divided into two 60° phases. We recently showed that the energy that drives Phase-2 results from the binding energy of ATP to the empty catalytic site. Elevated ADP concentrations not only increase dwells at 35° consistent with competitive product inhibition but also decrease angular velocity during Phase-2. We have now also identified similarities and differences in the F1 power stroke angular velocity profiles with that from thermophilic bacteria, an A1-ATPase from an archae bacterium, and most notably the F1 from a mycobacterium. The latter is notable because structural differences that may contribute to the changes in the power stroke provide possible new drug targets for tuberculosis.

  • Ragunathan, R., Sielaff, J., Sundararaman, L., Biukovic, G., Sony, M., Manimekalai, S., Singh, D., Kundu, S., Wohland, T., Frasch, W.D., Dick, T., and Grüber, G. (2017) “The Uniqueness of Subunit a of Mycobacterial F-ATP synthases: An evolutionary Variant for Niche Adaptation”, J. Biol. Chem. 292, 11262-11279.
  • Sielaff, H., Martin, J., Grüber, G., and Frasch, W. D. (2016) “Power Stroke Angular Velocity Profiles of Archaeal A-ATP Synthase Versus Thermophilic and Mesophilic F-ATP Synthase Molecular Motors” J. Biol. Chem. 291, 25351-25363.
  • Martin, J., Ishmukhametov, R., Hornung, T., Ahmad, Z., and Frasch, W. D. (2014) “Anatomy of F1-ATPase Powered Rotation” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3715-3720.
  • Hornung, T., Martin, J., Ishmukhametov, R., Spetzler, D., and Frasch, W. D. (2011) “Microsecond Resolution of Single Molecule Rotation Catalyzed by Molecular Motors”, Methods in Molecular Biology 778, 273-289
  • Spetzler, D., Ishmukhametov, R., Day, L. J., Hornung, T., Martin, J., and Frasch, W. D. (2009) “Single Molecule Measurements of F1-ATPase Reveal an Interdependence between the Power Stroke and the Dwell Duration”, Biochemistry 49, 7979-7985.
  • Hornung, T., Ishmukhametov, R., Spetzler, D., Martin, J., and Frasch, W. D. (2008) “Determination of Torque Generation from the Power Stroke of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.” Biochim. Biophys. Acta- Bioenergetics 1777, 579-582.
  • York, J., Spetzler, D., Hornung, T., Ishmukhametov, R., Martin, J., and Frasch, W.D. (2007) “Abundance of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase Molecules Observed to Rotate via Single-Molecule Microscopy with Gold Nanorod Probes”, J. Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 39, 435-439.
  • Spetzler, D., York, J., Lowry, D., Daniel, D., Fromme, R. and Frasch, W. D. (2006) “Microsecond Time Resolution of Single Molecule F1-ATPase Rotation”, Biochemistry 45, 3117-3124. Accelerated publication designated a Hot Article by the ACS based on top-10 down loads from the journal.
  • Boltz, K. and Frasch, W.D. (2006) “Hydrogen Bonds between the alpha and beta Subunits of the F1-ATPase Allow Communication between the Catalytic site and the Interface of the beta-Catch Loop and the gamma Subunit.” Biochemistry 45, 11190-11199.
  • Boltz, K. W. and Frasch, W. D. (2005) “Interactions of gammaT273 and gammaE275 with the beta Subunit PSAV Segment that Links the gamma-Subunit to the Catalytic Site Walker Homology B Aspartate are Important to the Function of Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP Synthase”, Biochemistry 44, 9497-9506.
  • Lowry, D. and Frasch, W. D. (2005) “Interactions between betaD372 and gamma-Subunit N-terminus residues gammaK9 and gammaS12 are Important for ATP Synthase Activity Catalyzed by the E. coli FoF1 ATP Synthase” Biochemistry 44, 7275-7281.
  • Greene, M. D. and Frasch, W. D. (2003) “Interactions between gammaR268, gammaQ269 and the beta Subunit Catch-Loop of E. Coli F1-ATPase are Critical for Catalytic Activity, J. Biol. Chem. 278, 51594-51598.

2. Nanodevices for Molecular Detection and Computation.  We adapted the single-molecule assay of F1-ATPase rotation using gold nanorods for use in molecular detection of DNA sequences, proteins, and metabolites that are biomarkers for cancer and infectious diseases. I realized that the F1 and the nanorod can be engineered such that assembly of the F1-ATPase motor with a nanorod is only possible by the binding of a specific target molecule. The target molecule can a protein biomarker for cancer, or the Stx2 toxin from E. coli O157:H7. Through the creation of these nanodevices, we have been able to achieve limits of detection for proteins that are 5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than commercially available approaches. This is possible because F1-ATPae-dependent nanorod rotation is only possible when the nanodevice has correctly assembled via the target molecule. We have made nanodevices to detect target metabolites, and for DNA profiling that avoids the need for signal amplification with PCR, which can introduce artifacts. I invented the ligation-exonuclease reaction (LXR) as part of our DNA detection. As a secondary spin-off of this technology, we adapted LXR for use in DNA computing where we solved the largest, most complex mathematical problem at that time using DNA. To increase the speed and accuracy of the computations with DNA, I invented omega probe-mediated qRT-PCR nanodevices. We are developing these nanodevices for use in molecular computations with direct biomedical applications.

  • Xiong, F. and Frasch, W. D. (2017) “Telomere Measuring Nanodevice and Method Therefor,” U.S. Patent Disclosure
  • Frasch, W. D. (2013)  “Detection of Target Metabolites,” U.S. Patent Nationalized PCT application13/808,567
  • Frasch, W. D., Spetzler, D., and York, J. (2013) “High Speed, High Fidelity, High Sensitivity Nucleic Acid Detection”, U.S. Patent 8,530,199.
  • Frasch, W. D., Spetzler, D., and York, J., Xiong, F. (2013) “Methods for Generating a Distribution of Optimal Solutions to Nondeterministic Polynomial Optimization Problems” U.S. Patent 8,126,649.
  • Frasch, W. D. and Chapsky, L. (2012) “Polarization-Enhanced Detector with Gold Nanorods for Detecting Nanoscale Rotational Motion and method therefor” U.S. Patent 8,192,936
  • Frasch, W. D., Spetzler, D., and York, J., Xiong, F. (2012) “Methods for Generating a Distribution of Optimal Solutions to Nondeterministic Polynomial Optimization Problems” U.S. Patent 8,126,649
  • Frasch, W. D., Spetzler, D., and York, J. (2012) “High Speed, High Fidelity, High Sensitivity Nucleic Acid Detection”, U.S. Patent 8,084,206
  • Frasch, W. D. and He, Liyan (2011) “Single Molecule Detection using Molecular Motors” U.S. Patent 8,076,079
  • Xiong, F. and Frasch, W. D. (2010) “Padlock Probe-Mediated qRT-PCR for DNA Computing Answer Determination”, Natural Computing 10, 947-959
  • Xiong, F., Spetzler, D., and Frasch, W. D. (2009) “Solving the Fully-Connected 15-City TSP using Probabilistic DNA Computing”, Integr. Biol., 1, 275-280
  • York, J., Spetzler, D., Xiong, F., and Frasch, W. D. (2008) “Single Molecule Detection of DNA via Sequence-Specific Links between F1-ATPase Motors and Gold Nanorod Sensors”, Lab. Chip 8, 415-419. Among top-10 LOC articles accessed on-line. Highlighted in Chemical Biology, a Royal Society of Chemistry news magazine that provides a snapshot of the latest, most exciting, chemical biology developments.
  • Spetzler, D., Xiong, F., and Frasch, W. D. (2008) “Heuristic solution to a 10-City Traveling Salesman Problem Using Probabilistic DNA Computing”, LNCS 4848, 152-160.
  • Spetzler, D., York, J., Dobbin, C., Martin, J., Xiong, F., Ishmukhametov, R., Day, L., Yu, J., Kang, H., Porter, K., Hornung, T., and Frasch, W.D. (2007) “Recent Developments of Biomolecular Motors as On-Chip Devices using Single Molecule Techniques”, Lab. Chip 7, 1633-1643. Among top 10 most accessed LOC articles in 2007.
  • Spetzler, D., Xiong, F., and Frasch, W.D. (2007) “Probabilistic DNA Computing Solution to a Fully Connected 10-City Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem” Proc. DNA 13, 9-18.
  • Xiong, F., Spetzler, and Frasch, W. D. (2007) “Elimination of Secondary Structures for DNA Computing”, Proc. DNA 13, 241-249.
  • Chapsky, L., Frasch, W. D., Chou, C., Zenhausern, F., and Goronkin, H. (2006) “Single-Molecule Detection of Biological Warfare Agents Using the F1-ATPase Biomolecular Motor” U.S. Patent 6,989,235
Research Activity
Fall 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
NEU 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
MCB 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
Summer 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Fall 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
NEU 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
MCB 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
Summer 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Fall 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 189Life Sciences Career Paths
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
NEU 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
MCB 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
Summer 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Fall 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
NEU 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
MCB 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
Spring 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
Fall 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
NEU 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
MCB 555Adv Molecular & Cellular Sci
Spring 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
Presentations
  • Frasch W D. Fo-Dependent Clockwise Rotation against the force of F1-ATPase Counterclockwise Rotation. Invited talk, European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC14) Lisbon, Portugal (Jul 2014).
  • Frasch, W.D. Anatomy of F1-ATPase Dependent Rotation.". European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012), Freiburg, Germany (Sep 2012).
  • Frasch, W. D. It Takes Two- Mechanisms of the Opposed Fo and F1 Molecular Motors of the ATP synthase. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Department of Biochemistry Seminar (Sep 2012).
  • Frasch*, W.D., Martin, J., and Hudson, J. Identification and Function of Leash Forming Residues in the FoF1 ATP Synthase Molecular Motor using Single Molecule Measurements. Gordon Research Conference on Single Molecule Methods, Stowe VT (Jul 2012).
  • Frasch, W.D. Identification and Function of Leash Forming Residues in the FoF1 ATP Synthase Molecular Motor using Single Molecule Measurements. Annual Meeting American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, San Diego, CA (Apr 2012).
  • Frasch, W.D., Martin, J., Hudson, J. Identification and Function of Leash Forming Residues in the FoF1 ATP Synthase Molecular Motor using Single-Molecule Measurements. Biophysical Society National Meeting, San Diego, CA (Feb 2012).
  • Frasch, W.D. Functional Consequences of Releasing the Fo-Leash on the FoF1ATP synthase. Gordon Research Conference on Protons and Membrane Reactions, Ventura, CA (Feb 2012).
  • Frasch, W.D. Exercising Restraint- Load Dependent Stepping of the Fo Motor. Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Cellular Bioenergetics, Andover NH (Jul 2011).
  • Wayne Frasch. Rapid, Sensitive Pathogen Detection using a Self-Assembling Nanodevice. Nanotech India 2009, Cochin, India (Aug 2009).
  • Wayne Frasch. Development of the Double-Lock Probe to Quantify Amounts of Short Target DNA Sequences by RT-PCR. 11th International Detection Technologies Conference (Oct 2008).
  • Wayne Frasch. Mechanistic Insights of F1-ATPase Rotation from Single-Molecule Measurements of the Powerstroke. EBEC 2008 European Bioenergetics Conference, Dublin, Ireland (Jul 2008).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Biomolecular motor-powered nanodevices for DNA detection, and their application for DNA Computing. UIUC-Biophysics Department Seminar (Oct 2007).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Mechanism of Torque Generation by E. coli F1ATPasep Biomolecular Motor. GRC on Molecular and Cellular Bioenergetics (Jul 2007).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Mechanism of Torque Generation by E. coli F1ATPasep Biomolecular Motor. FASEB-Transport ATPases: Genomics, Mechanisms, and Relevance to Diseases Plenary Talk (Jun 2007).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Probabilistic DNA Computing Solution to a Fully Connected 10-City Traveling Salesman Problem. 13th International Meeting on DNA Computing Plenary Talk (Jun 2007).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Construction of a DNA Computer to Solve a 10 City Traveling Salesman Problem. Biomimetic, Biomaterial and Biointerfacial Conference (Jan 2007).
  • Frasch, Wayne. DNA Detection Technologies. Knowledge Foundation's 9th International Detection Technologies Conference (Oct 2006).
  • Frasch, Wayne, York, J, Martin, J, Spetzler, D, Ishmukhametov, R. Microsecond Time Scale Rotation Measurements of Single F1-ATPase Molelcules. European Bioenergetics Conference, Moscow, Russia (Jul 2006).
  • Frasch, Wayne. DNA Computing using the F1ATPase Biomolecular Motor. Biomolecular Motor Conference, Orlando, FL (Oct 2005).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Observing Single Molecule ATP Synthase Trajectories in Real Time. Experts Workshop on the Physics of Biological Force Generation (Aug 2005).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Single Molecule Measurements of the Rate of E. coli F1ATPase gamma Subunit Rotation Resolved on the Microsecond Time Scale. FASEB Transport ATPase Conference, Saxton's River, VT (Jul 2005).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Use of the Molecular Semaphore Device to Detect Single Molecules of DNA. Biomolecular Motors Conference (Feb 2005).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Detection of Single Molecules of DNA using the F1-ATPase Biomolecular Motor. Molecular Motors Conference (Feb 2005).
  • Frasch, Wayne, Lowry, D, Greene, M, Boltz, K. Contribution of Intersubunit Hydrogen Bonds and Salt Bridges to the F1Fo ATP synthase Mechanism. European Bioenergetic Conference (Aug 2004).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Rotational Mechanism of the F1-ATPase Molecular Motor. Gordon Research Conference on Cellular/molecular aspects of Bioenergetics, Proctor Academy (Jul 2004).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Construction of a Molecular Semaphore Device. Biomolecular Motor Conference (Jun 2004).
  • Frasch, Wayne. Contribution of H-bonds to the F1-ATPase mechanism. Molecular/Cellular Bioenergetics-GRC (Jun 2003).
  • Frasch, Wayne, Boltz, K, Greene, M, Lowry, D, Rodreguez, L, Iannelli, G. Thermodynamic properties of residues that effect ligation of the F1-ATPase metal cofactor. European Bioenergetic Conference (Sep 2002).
  • Frasch, Wayne. DNA Computing. US Army Research Office Seminar
  • Frasch, Wayne. Single Molecule Studies to Investigate the Rotary Mechanism of the F1Fo molecular motor. UIUC-Biochemistry Department Seminar
  • Frasch, Wayne. Single Molecule Studies to Investigate the Rotary Mechanism of the F1Fo molecular motor. UNC-Biochemistry Department Seminar
  • Frasch, Wayne. Single-Molecule Detection of DNA via Sequence-Specific Links between F1-ATPase Motors and Gold Nanorod Sensors. US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Seminar
  • Frasch, Wayne. The F1Fo ATP synthase- two molecular motors with two intertwined mechanisms. U. PITT-Structural Biology Department Seminar
Service
  • Biochemistry USA, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Biophysical Journal, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Nature Communications, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Nature Sci Reports, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • PLoS One, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Protein Science, reviewer (2014 - Present)
  • Biophysical Journal, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • Philosophical Transactions, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • The Journal Nature, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • The Journal Nature Communications, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • The Journal PLOS One, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • US-Israel National Science Foundation, ad hoc reviewer (2013 - Present)
  • Faculty of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Faculty Leader (2011 - Present)
  • Biochim Biophys Acta, ad hoc reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry, ad hoc reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • Biophysical Journal, ad hoc reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • Biochemistry, ad hoc reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • National Institutes of Health, Grant Reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA, ad hoc reviewer (2009 - Present)
  • Defence Threat Reduction Agency Workshop to Develop a Funding Roadmap for DTRA, Invited Participant (2008 - Present)
  • Langmuir-American Chemical Society, Ad hoc reviewer (2006 - Present)
  • Biochemistry Department, Southern Methodist University, External Tenure/Promotion Reviewer (2006 - Present)
  • Spirit of the Senses Science Salons, Invited Lecturer (2006 - Present)
  • Biochemistry-American Chemical Society Journal, Ad hoc reviewer (2006 - Present)
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry, Reviewer (2006 - Present)
  • U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation, Ad hoc proposal review (2006 - Present)
  • Prentis Hall Publishing Co, Textbook Reviewer (2005 - Present)
  • Journal of Bacteriology, Ad hoc reviewer (2005 - Present)
  • Prentice Hall Publishing Company, Textbook Reviewer (2004 - Present)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Reviewer (2004 - Present)
  • Nano Letters, Reviewer (2004 - Present)
  • U. S. Department of Defense, Proposal Reviewer (2004 - Present)
  • Photosynthesis Research, Reviewer (2004 - Present)
  • National Science Foundation, Reviewer (2003 - Present)
  • European Journal of Biochemistry, Reviewer (2002 - Present)
  • Trends in Plant Sciences, Reviewer (2002 - Present)
  • Biochemistry-American Chemical Society Journal, Reviewer (2002 - Present)
  • Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis, Executive Committee Member (2002 - 2025)
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Associate Editor (2010 - 2015)
  • Faculty of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Faculty Leader (2011 - 2014)
  • BARD US-Israel National Science Foundation, Grant Review Panel Member (2006 - 2010)
  • National Institutes of Health Grants, Study Section member (2005 - 2008)
  • School of Life Sciences Executive Committee, Faculty Leader (2004 - 2007)
  • BARD- Binational Science Foundation- Israel & USA, Grant Review Panel Member (2007 - 2007)
  • BARD- U.S.-Irael Bionational Science Foundation, Panel Member Proposal Reviews (2006 - 2007)
  • National Science Foundation, Ad hoc Proposal Review (2006 - 2006)
  • National Science Foundation, Panel Member Proposal Review (2005 - 2005)
  • National Institutes of Health Grants, Study Section member (2004 - 2004)
  • Plant Biology Department Graduate Admissions Committee, Member (2000 - 2003)
  • ASU Photosynthesis Center Executive Committee, Member (2003)
  • Biochemistry and Cell Biology Journal, Reviewer (2003)
  • Evaluation Committee for research-to-tenure track faculty conversions, Chair (2003)
  • Faculty Search Committee-Molecular Geneticist, Affirmative action member (2003)
  • Graduate Admissions committee-plant biology, Member (2003)
  • Monte Vista Elementary School, presenter (2003)
  • NWO Grants (NSF for the Netherlands), Reviewer (2003)
  • USDA-NRIGC Grants, Reviewer (2003)
  • AZ Biodesign Institute, Faculty Search Committee, Member (2001 - 2002)
  • Graduate Studies Committee, Molecular & Cellular Biology Grad Program, Chair (1999 - 2001)
  • Heptannual Review Committee, Molecular & Cellular Biology, Member (1999 - 2001)
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Editorial Review Board Member (2012 - 06-2015)
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Editorial Review Board Member (2010 - 06-2015)