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Dale DeNardo

Associate Professor
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 6011
Program Director & Assoc Prof
Faculty w/Admin Appointment, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 6011
Program Director & Assoc Prof
Faculty, TEMPE Campus, Mailcode 6011
Biography

Dale DeNardo is the Attending Veterinarian and director of the Department of Animal Care and Technologies at ASU. In this role, he oversees the husbandry and health of all animals on campus.  

He is also an associate professor in the School of Life Sciences. His research focus is in environmental physiology where he studies the interaction between an organism and its environment. He and his research team use both laboratory and field-based experiments to investigate how physiological state, behavior, and environmental conditions interact to enable an animal not only to survive but also to thrive and reproduce in challenging environments such as deserts. Professor DeNardo and his collaborators are particularly interested in how organisms deal with limited resources, such as energy and water, and how their coping strategies will be affected by climate change.

Fax
480-965-7866
Education
  • Ph.D. University of California-Berkeley, Department of Integrative Biology. Dissertation title: The Effects of Steroids on the Reproduction of the Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta stansburiana. Advisor: Paul Licht. 1994
  • D.V.M. Zoological Medicine, University of California-Davis 1988 
  • B.S. Zoology (highest honors), University of California-Davis 1984
Research Interests
  • effects of water limitation on immune and other physiological functions
  • effects of ecotourism of immune and reproductive physiology
  • genomic analysis of speciation in North American desert tortoises
  • tradeoffs associated with the provisioning of parental care 
Publications

Primary literature:

94. Lourdais, O., Dupoué, A., Guillon, M., Guiller, G., Michaud, B., and DeNardo, D. F. 2017. Hydric "costs" of reproduction: pregnancy increases evaporative water loss in the snake Vipera aspis, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, in press.

93. Brusch, G. A., Billy, G., Blattman, J. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2017. Reproduction alters hydration state but does not impact the positive effects of dehydration on innate immune function in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, in press.

92. Smith, G., Neuman-Lee, L. A., Webb, A. C., Angilletta, M. J., DeNardo, D. F., and French, S. S. 2017. Metabolic responses to different immune challenges and varying resource availability in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). Journal of Comparative Physiology B, in press.

91. Brashears, J. A., Hoffman, T. C. M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2017. Modeling the costs and benefits associated with the evolution of endothermy using a robotic python. Journal of Experimental Biology 220 2409-2417.

90. Tollis, M., DeNardo, D. F., Cornelius, J. A., Dolby, G. A., Edwards, T., T. Henen, B. T., Karl, A. E., Murphy, R. W., and Kusumi. K. 2017. The Agassiz’s desert tortoise genome provides a resource for the conservation of a threatened species. PLOS ONE 12: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177708.

89. Brusch, G. A. and DeNardo, D. F. 2017. When less means more: dehydration improves innate immunity in rattlesnakes. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2287-2295.

88. Moeller, K. T., Demare, G., Davies, S., and DeNardo. D. F. 2017. Dehydration enhances multiple physiological defense mechanisms in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2166-2174.

87. French, S. S., Neuman-Lee, L. A., Terletzky, P., Kiriazis, N. M., Taylor, E., and DeNardo, D. F. 2017. Too much of a good thing? Human disturbance linked to ecotourism has a “dose-dependent” impact on innate immunity and oxidative stress in marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Biological Conservation 210A: 37-47.

86. Dupoue, A., Angelier, F., Brischoux, F., DeNardo, D. F., Trouve, C., Parenteau, C., and Lourdais, O. 2016. Water deprivation increases maternal corticosterone levels and enhances offspring growth in the snake Vipera aspis. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 658-667.

85. Lourdais, O., Lorioux, S., Dupoue, A., Wright, C., and DeNardo, D. F. 2015. Embryonic water uptake during pregnancy is stage- and fecundity-dependent in the snake Vipera aspis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A – Molecular and Integrative Physiology 189: 102-106. 

84. Brashears, J., and DeNardo, D. F. 2015. Facultative thermogenesis during brooding is not the norm among pythons. Journal of Comparative Physiology A – Neuroethology, sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 201: 817-825.

83. Zylstra, E. R., Seward, M. T., Schuett, G. W., Repp, R. A., DeNardo, D. F., and Beck, D. D. 2015.  Heloderma suspectum (Gila Monster). Probable courtship and mating behavior. Herpetological Review 46: 258-259.

82. Ackley, J. W., Angilletta, M. J., DeNardo, D., Sullivan, B., Wu, J. 2015. Urban heat island mitigation strategies and lizard thermal ecology: Landscaping can quadruple potential activity time in an arid city. Urban Ecosystems, in press.

81. Moeller, K. T., Elms, R., Sampson, S., Jackson, M., Seward, M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2015. Does feeding frequency, independent of total energy consumption, affect lizard digestive efficiency or growth? Journal of Zoology 296: 225-230.

80. Dupoue, A., Brischoux, F., Angelier, F., DeNardo, D. F., Wright, C. D., Lourdais, O. 2014. Intergenerational trade-off for water may induce a mother-offspring conflict in favour of embryos in a viviparous snake. Functional Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12349

79. Hutchins, E. D., Markov, G. J., Eckalbar, W. L., George, R. M., King, J. M., Tokuyama, M. A., Geiger, L. A., Emmert, N., Ammar, M. J., Allen, A. N., Siniard, A. L., Corneveaux, J. J., Fisher, R. E., Wade, J., DeNardo, D. F., Rawls, J. A., Huentelman, M. J., Wilson-Rawls, J., and Kusumi. K. 2014. Transcriptomic Analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms, PLOS ONE 9: e105004.

78. Foucart, T., Lourdais, O., DeNardo. D., and Heulin, B. 2014. Influence of reproductive mode on metabolic costs of reproduction: insight from a bimodal lizard Zootoca vivipara. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 4049-4056.

77. Santander, J., Kilbourne, J., Park, J.-Y., Martin, T., Loh, A., Diaz, I., Rojas, R., Segovia, C., DeNardo, D., and Curtiss, R. III. 2014. Inflammatory effects of Edwardsiella ictaluri lypopolysaccharide modifications in catfish gut, Infection and Immunity 82: 3394-3404.

76. McCartney, K. L., Ligon, R. A., Butler, M. W., DeNardo, D. F., and McGraw, K. J. 2014. The effect of carotenoid supplementation on immune system development in juvenile male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Frontiers in Zoology 11: 26http://www.frontiersinzoology.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/content/11/1/26.

75. Guillon, M., Guiller, G., DeNardo, D. F., and Lourdais, O. 2014. Microclimate preferences correlate with contrasted evaporative water loss in parapatric vipers at their contact zone. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92: 81-86.

74. Myers, E. A., Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., DeNardo, D. F., Staub, R. E., Stropoli, A., Ruane1, S., and Burbrink, F. T. 2013. Multilocus phylogeographic assessment of the California Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata) suggests alternative patterns of diversification for the California Floristic Province. Molecular Ecology 22: 5418-5429.

73. Lourdais, O., Guillon, M., DeNardo, D. F., and Blouin-Demers, G. 2013. Cold climate specialization: adaptive covariation between metabolic rate and thermoregulation in pregnant vipers, Physiology and Behavior 119: 149-155.

72. Moeller K. T., Butler, M. W. and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. The effect of hydration state and energy balance on innate immunity of a desert reptile. Frontiers in Zoology 10: 23, www.frontiersinzoology.com/content/10/1/23.

71. Lorioux, S., Vaugoyeau, M., DeNardo, D. F., Clobert, J., Guillon, M., and Lourdais, O. 2013. Stage-dependence of phenotypical and phenological maternal effects: insight into squamate reptile reproductive strategies. American Naturalist 182: 223-233.

70. Butler, M. W., Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Ardia, D. R., Davies, S., Davis, J. R., Guillette, L. J., Johnson, N., McCormick, S. D., McGraw, K. J., and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. Thermal sensitivity of immune function: evidence against a generalist-specialist tradeoff among endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. American Naturalist 181: 761-774

69. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Lourdais, O., Lorioux, S., Butler, M. W., Davis, J. R., Salin, K., Voituron, Y., and DeNardo, D. F.  2013. Morphological and physiological changes during reproduction and their relationships to reproductive performance in a capital breeder. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 86: 398-409.

68. Wright, C. W., Jackson, M. L., and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum. Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 1439-1447. [featured as April 2013 Editors’ Choice]

67. Lourdais, O., Lorioux, S., and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. Structural and performance costs of reproduction in a pure capital breeder, the Children's python, Antaresia children. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 86: 176-183.

66. Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. Revisiting python thermogenesis: brooding Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus) cue on body, not clutch, temperature. Journal of Herpetology 47: 440-444.

65. Alibardi, L., and DeNardo, D. F. 2013. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical features of the epidermis of the lizard Heloderma suspectum indicate richness in lipids and lack of a specialized shedding complex. Acta Zoologica 94: 35-43.

64. Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. 2012. Do brooding pythons recognize their clutches? Investigating external cues for offspring recognition in the Children’s python, Antaresia childreni. Ethology 118: 793-798.

63. Fisher, R. E. Geiger, L., Stroik, L. K.., Hutchins, E. D., George, R., DeNardo, D. F., Kusumi, K. J., Rawls, J. A., and Wilson-Rawls, J. 2012. A histological comparison of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. The Anatomical Record 295: 1609-1619.

62. Ritzman, T. B., Stroik, L. K., Julik, E., Hutchins, E. D., Lasku, E., DeNardo, D. F., Wilson-Rawls, J., Rawls, J. A., Kusumi, K., Fisher, R. E. 2012. The gross anatomy of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis). The Anatomical Record 295: 1596-1608.

61. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Shine, R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2012. The consequences of alternative parental care tactics in free-ranging pythons in tropical Australia. Functional Ecology 26: 812-821.

60. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Shine, R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2012. Temporal and spatial complexity of maternal thermoregulation in tropical pythons. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 219-230.

59. Lorioux, S., DeNardo, D. F., Gorelick, R., and Lourdais, O. 2012. Maternal influences on early development: preferred temperature prior to oviposition hastens embryogenesis and enhances offspring traits in the Children’s python (Antaresia childreni). Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1346-1353.

58. Eckalbar, W. L., Lasku, E., Infante, C. R., Elsey, R. M., Markov, G. J., Allen, A. N., Corneveaux, J. J., Losos, J. B., DeNardo, D. F., Huentelman, M. J., Wilson-Rawls, J., Rawls, A., Kusumi, K. 2012. Somitogenesis in the anole lizard and alligator reveals evolutionary convergence and divergence in the amniote segmentation clock. Developmental Biology 363: 308-319.

57. Cooper-Bailey, K., Smith, S. A., Zimmerman, K., Lane, R., Raskin, R. E., and DeNardo, D. F. 2011. Hematology, blood chemistry and plasma electrophoresis of wild-caught and captive-bred Gila Monsters (Heloderma suspectum). Veterinary Clinical Pathology 40: 316-323.

56. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. 2011. The use of ultrasound to assess reproductive investment and output in pythons. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 772-778.

55. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., DeNardo, D. F., Holland, J. N., Kotler, B. P., and Kruse-Peebles, M. 2011. Tolerance mechanisms in North American deserts: Biological and societal approaches to climate change. Journal of Arid Environments 75: 681-687.

54. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. 2011. The role of temperature and humidity in python nest-site selection. Animal Behaviour 81: 1077-1081.

53. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Davis, J. R., and DeNardo, D. F.  2011. Sexual variation in assimilation efficiency: its link to phenotype and potential role in sexual dimorphism. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 181: 383-389.

52. Yokoyama, S., Altun, A., and DeNardo, D. F. 2011. Molecular convergence of infrared vision in snakes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 45-48.

51. French, S. S., DeNardo, D. F., Greives, T. J., Strand, C. R., and Demas, G. E. 2010. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Hormones and Behavior 58: 792-799.

50. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Heulin, B., and DeNardo, D. F. 2010. The role of python eggshell permeability dynamics in a respiration-hydration tradeoff. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 83: 576-586.

49. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2010. Parental behavior in pythons is responsive to both the hydric and thermal dynamics of the nest. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 1691-1696. [featured in “Inside JEB”, on the BBC web site’s “The Big Picture”, and on CNBC radio show “Quirks and Quarks”]

48. Davis, J. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2010. Seasonal patterns of body condition, hydration state, and activity of Gila Monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at a Sonoran Desert site. Journal of Herpetology 44: 83-93.

47. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2009. Effect of nest temperature on egg-brooding dynamics in Children's pythons. Physiology and Behavior 98: 302-306.

46. Davis, J. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2009. Water supplementation affects the behavioral and physiological ecology of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) in the Sonoran Desert. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 82: 739-748.

45. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2009. Obligate costs of parental care to offspring: Egg-brooding induced hypoxia creates smaller, slower, and weaker python offspring. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98: 414-421.

44. Taylor, E. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2008. Proximate determinants of sexual size dimorphism in the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), In The Biology of Rattlesnakes (W. K. Hayes, K. R. Beaman, M. D. Cardwell, & S. P. Bush, eds.). Loma Linda University Press, Loma Linda, California, Pp. 91-100.

43. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Hoffman, T. C. M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2008. Postural shifts during egg-brooding and their impact on egg water balance in Children’s pythons (Antaresia childreni). Ethology. 114: 1113–1121.

42. Davis, J. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2008. Water storage compromises endurance in an active forager: evidence of a trade-off between osmoregulation and locomotor performance. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 194: 713–718.

41. Davis, J. R., Taylor, E. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2008. An automated temperature-based option for estimating surface activity and refuge use patterns in free-ranging animals. Journal of Arid Environments. 72: 1414-1422.

40. Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo D. F. 2008. Alternating egg brooding behaviors create and modulate a hypoxic developmental micro-environment in Children’s pythons (Antaresia childreni). Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1535-1540.

39. Lourdais, O., Heulin, B., and DeNardo, D. F. 2008. Thermoregulation during gravidity in the Children’s python (Antaresia childreni): a test of the pre-adaptation hypothesis for maternal thermophily in snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 499-508.

38. French, S. S., DeNardo, D. F., and Moore, M. C. 2007. Trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems: facultative responses to resources or obligate responses to sex steroid hormones? American Naturalist. 170: 79-89.

37. Christel, C. M., Secor, S. M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2007. Metabolic and digestive response to food ingestion in a binge-feeding lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 3430-3439.

36. Lourdais, O., Hoffman, T. and DeNardo, D. F. 2007. Maternal brooding in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni) promotes egg water balance. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 177: 569-577.

35. Davis, J. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2007. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 1472-1480.

34. Hoffman, T. C. M., Walsberg, G. E., and DeNardo, D. F. 2007. Cloacal evaporation: an important and previously undescribed mechanism for avian thermoregulation. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 741-749.

33. Christel, C. M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2007. Absence of exendin-4 effects on postprandial glucose and lipids in the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 177: 129-134. (

32. Schuett, G. W., Repp, R. A., Taylor, E. N., DeNardo, D. F., Earley, R. L., Van Kirk, E. A., and Murdoch, W.J. 2006. Winter profile of plasma sex steroid levels in free-living male western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox (Serpentes: Viperidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 149: 72-80.

31. Christel, C. M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2006. Release of exendin-4 is controlled by mechanical action in Gila monsters, Heloderma suspectum. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 143: 85-88.

30. Taylor, E. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2005. Sexual size dimorphism and growth plasticity in snakes: an experiment on the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Journal of Experimental Zoology 303A: 598-607.

29. Taylor, E. N., Malawy, M. A., Browning, D. M., Lemar, S. V., and DeNardo, D. F. 2005. Effects of food supplementation on the physiological ecology of female western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). Oecologia 144: 206-213.

28. Taylor, E. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2005. Reproductive ecology of Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) in the Sonoran Desert. Copeia 2005: 152-158.

27. DeNardo, D. F., Zubal T. E., and Hoffman, T. C. M. 2004. Cloacal evaporative cooling: a previously undescribed means of increasing evaporative water loss at higher temperatures in a desert ectotherm, the Gila Monster Heloderma suspectum. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 945-953.

26. Lourdais, O., Brischoux, F., DeNardo, D., and Shine, R. 2004. Protein catabolism in pregnant snakes (Epicrates cenchria maurus Boidae) compromises musculature and performance after reproduction. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174: 383-391.

25. Taylor, E. N., DeNardo, D. F., and Jennings, D. 2004. Seasonal steroid hormone levels and their relation to reproduction in the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox (Serpentes: Viperidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 136: 328-337.

24. Taylor, E. N., DeNardo, D. F., and Malawy, M. A. 2004. A comparison between point- and semi-continuous sampling for assessing body temperature in a free-ranging ectotherm.  Journal of Thermal Biology, 29: 91-96.

23. Lourdais, O., Bonnet, X., DeNardo, D., and Naulleau, G. 2002. Do sex divergences in reproductive ecophysiology population translate into dimorphic demographic patterns. Population Ecology 44: 241-249.

22. DeNardo, D. F., Luna, J. V., and Hwang, M. 2002. Ambient temperature and activity of horned adders, Bitis caudalis: how cold is too cold? Journal of Herpetology 36: 688-691.

21. Lourdais, O., Bonnet, X., Shine, R., DeNardo, D., Naulleau, G., and Guillon, M. 2002. Capital-breeding and reproductive effort in a variable environment: a longitudinal study of a viviparous snake. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 470-479.

20. DeNardo, D. F., and Helminski, G. 2001. The use of hormone antagonists to inhibit reproduction in the lizard Eublepharis macularius. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 11:4-7.

19. DeNardo, D. F., and Autumn, K. 2001. The effect of male presence on reproductive activity in captive female blood pythons, Python curtus. Copeia 2001: 1138-1141.

18. Eisen, R. J., and DeNardo, D. F. 2000. Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum) in its host, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis): host testosterone as a seasonal cue?  Journal of Parasitology 86: 1041-1045.

17. Reiserer, R. S., and DeNardo, D. F. 2000. Natural history observations on Bitis peringueyi (Reptilia: Viperidae). Cimbebasia 16: 195-198.

16. Sinervo, B., Miles, D. B., Frankino, A., Klukowski, M., and DeNardo, D. F. 2000. Testosterone, endurance, and Darwinian fitness: natural and sexual selection on the physiological bases of alternative male behaviors in side-blotched lizards.  Hormones and Behavior 38: 222-233.

15. Wozniak, E. J., and DeNardo, D. F. 2000. The biology, clinical significance, and control of the common snake mite, Ophionyssus natricis, in captive reptiles. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 10: 4-10.

14. Wozniak, E., DeNardo, D. F., Brewer, A., Wong, V., and Tarara, R. P. 2000.  Identification of adenovirus- and dependovirus-like agents in an outbreak of fatal gastroenteritis in captive born California mountain kingsnakes (Lampropeltis zonata multicincta). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 10: 4-7.

13. Wozniak, E., McBride, J., Tarara, R., Wong, V., and DeNardo, D. F.  2000. Isolation and characterization on an antigenically distinct 68-kilodalton protein from non-viral intracytoplasmic inclusions in boa constrictors chronically infected with the inclusion body disease virus (IBDV: Retroviridae).  Journal of Veterinary Pathology 37: 449-459.

12. Autumn, K., Jindrich, D., DeNardo, D., and Mueller, R. 1999. Locomotor performance at low temperature and the evolution of nocturnality in geckos.  Evolution 53: 580-599.

11. Rodriguez-Robles, J. A., DeNardo, D. F., and Staub, R. E. 1999. Phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata (Colubridae). Molecular Ecology 8: 1923-1934.

10. Wozniak, E. J., Telford, S. R. Jr., DeNardo, D., McLaughlin, G. L., and Butler, J. F. 1998. Granulomatous hepatitis associated with Hepatozoon sp. meronts in a southern water snake (Nerodia fasciata piciventris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29: 68-71.

9.   Colberg, M. E., DeNardo, D. F., Rojek, N. A., and Miller, J. W. 1997. Surgical procedure for radiotransmitter implantation into aquatic, larval salamanders. Herpetological Review 28:77-78.

8.   Wozniak, E. J., and DeNardo, D. F. 1997. Understanding the snake mite and current therapies for control.  Proceedings of the American Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 137-147.

7.   Sinervo, B., and DeNardo, D.F. 1996. Cost of reproduction in the wild: path analysis of natural selection and experimental tests of causation. Evolution 50: 1299-1313.

6.   Wozniak, E. J., Telford, S. R., DeNardo, D. 1996. The biology of reptilian Hepatozoon species and their potential influence on the health status of captive reptiles. Bulletin of the American Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 6: 8-12.

5.   Autumn, K., and DeNardo, D. F. 1995. Behavioral thermoregulation increases growth rate in a nocturnal lizard. Journal of Herpetology 29: 157-162.

4.   DeNardo, D. F., and Sinervo, B. 1994. Effects of steroid hormone interaction on activity and home-range size of male lizards. Hormones and Behavior 28: 273-287.

3.   DeNardo, D. F., and Sinervo, B. 1994.  Effects of corticosterone on activity and home-range size of free-ranging male lizards. Hormones and Behavior 28: 53-65.

2.   DeNardo, D. F., and Licht, P. 1993.  Effects of corticosterone on social behavior of male lizards.  Hormones and Behavior 27: 184-199.

1.   DeNardo, D. F. 1992. The effects of stress on reproduction in lizards and its application to captive management, In Proceedings of the International Herpetological Society's 19th Conference.

 

Synthetic reviews (both book chapters and articles):

12. Lillywhite, H. B., Shine, R., Jacobson, E., DeNardo, D. F., Gordon, M. S., Navas, C. A., Wang, T., Seymour, R. S., Storey, K. B., Heatwole, H., Heard, D., Brattstrom, B., and Burghardt, G. M. 2017. Anesthesia and euthanasia of amphibians and reptiles used in scientific research: should hypothermia and freezing be prohibited? Bioscience 67: 53-61.

11. DeNardo, D. F., Lourdais, O., and Stahlschmidt, Z. R. 2012. Are females maternal manipulators, selfish mothers, or both? Insight from pythons. Herpetologica 68: 299-307. [solicited article]

10. DeNardo, D. F. 2012. Anesthesia. In Reptile Biodiversity: Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring (R. W. McDiarmid, M. S. Foster,  J. W. Gibbons,  C. Guyer, W. Gibbons, and N. Chernoff, eds.). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Pp. 134-138.

9.   DeNardo, D. F., and Taylor, E. N. 2010. Hormones and reproduction in free-ranging snakes. In Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Snakes (R. D. Aldridge and D.M. Sever, eds.), Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH. Pp. 265-287.

8.   Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. 2010. Parental care in snakes. In Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Snakes (R. D. Aldridge and D.M. Sever, eds.), Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH. Pp. 673-702.

7.   Taylor, E. N., and DeNardo, D. F. 2010. Hormone and reproductive cycles in snakes. In Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates, Vol. 3 Reptiles (D. O. Norris & K. H. Lopez, eds.), Elsevier, San Diego. Pp. 355-372.

6.   DeNardo, D. F. 2006. Stress in captive reptiles. In Reptile Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Ed. (D. R. Mader, ed.) Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia. Pp. 119-123.

5.   DeNardo, D. F. 2006. Reproductive biology. In Reptile Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Ed. (D. R. Mader, ed.) Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia. Pp. 376-390.

4.   DeNardo, D. F. 2006. Dystocia. In Reptile Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Ed. (D. R. Mader, ed.) Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia. Pp. 787-792.

3.   DeNardo, D. F. 1996. Reproductive biology. In Reptile Medicine and Surgery (D. R. Mader, ed.) W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Pp. 212-223.

2.   DeNardo, D. F. 1996. Dystocia. In Reptile Medicine and Surgery (D. R. Mader, ed.) W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Pp. 370-373.

1.   DeNardo, D. 1995.  Amphibians as Laboratory Animals, ILAR Journal, 37: 173-181.

Summer 2019
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2019
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 493Honors Thesis
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 496Undergraduate Thesis
BIO 499Individualized Instruction
Summer 2018
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2018
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 493Honors Thesis
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 496Undergraduate Thesis
BIO 499Individualized Instruction
Summer 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 493Honors Thesis
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 496Undergraduate Thesis
BIO 499Individualized Instruction
Fall 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 461Comparative Animal Physiology
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Summer 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 370Vertebrate Zoology
BIO 493Honors Thesis
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 496Undergraduate Thesis
BIO 499Individualized Instruction
Fall 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 492Honors Directed Study
MBB 495Undergraduate Research
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Summer 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 494Special Topics
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Spring 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 493Honors Thesis
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
Presentations
  • Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. Warm and humid: Nest-site selection in an emerging parental care model. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. Touch or go: Proximal cues for clutch brooding in Children’s pythons (Antaresia childreni). Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Wright, C. D., Jackson, M., and DeNardo, D. F. Examining the chronic and acute impacts of food intake on hydration state in the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z. R., Lourdais, O., Lorioux, S., Butler, M. W., and DeNardo, D. F. Intrinsic costs underlying parental investment: Insight from a capital breeder. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Eckalbar, W. L., Infante, C., DeNardo, D. F., Losos, J., Rawls, A., Wilson-Rawls, J., and Kusumi, K. Different ways to build a backbone: Notch regulation of somitogenesis in the lizard Anolis carolinensis is highly divergent from birds and mammals. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Moeller, K. T., and DeNardo, D. F. Life stage affects water loss in the Gila monster, a desert dwelling lizard. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT (Jan 2011).
  • Markov, G. J., George, R., Emmert, N., Ammar, M., Eckalbar, W. L., Huynh, E., Wade, J., DeNardo, D., Rawls, R., Wilson-Rawls, J., Kusumi, K. Developmental gene activation in tail regeneration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Society for Developmental Biology annual meeting, Albuquerque, NM (Aug 2010).
  • French, S.S., DeNardo, D.F., Greives, T.J., Strand, C.R., Demas, G.E. Effects of human disturbance on immunocompetence and stress responses in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Seattle, WA (Jan 2010).
  • Pfau, D. R., Potter, S. Y., DeNardo, D. F., Taylor, E. N., and Strand, C. R. Effects of testosterone and captivity on medial and dorsal cortex volumes and neurogenesis in adult male Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Seattle, WA (Jan 2010).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. Parental behavior in pythons is dependent on both the hydric and thermal dynamics of the nest. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Seattle, WA (Jan 2010).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z. R., and DeNardo, D. F. The dynamics of python eggshell permeability. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Seattle, WA (Jan 2010).
  • Brashears, J. A., and DeNardo, D. F. Hormonal correlates accompanying reproductive behavior in three species of python. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Seattle, WA (Jan 2010).
  • Gienger, C. M., Davis, J. R., DeNardo, D. F., Beck, D. D., and Tracy, C. R. , . Modeling monster metabolism: geographic variation in resting energy use of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum). Dynamic Deserts: Resource Uncertainty in Arid Environments conference, Tempe, AZ (Feb 2009).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z.R. and DeNardo, D.F. Effect of nest temperature on egg-brooding behavior, metabolism, and clutch-nest thermal relations in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni). Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Boston, MA (Feb 2009).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z.R. and DeNardo, D.F. Obligate costs of parental care to offspring: Egg-brooding induced hypoxia creates smaller, slower, and weaker python offspring. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, Boston, MA (Feb 2009).
  • DF DeNardo. Matching parental behaviors with offspring needs: a tight balancing act in brooding pythons. University of Nevada, Reno, NV (Oct 2008).
  • DF DeNardo. Homeostatic tradeoffs: what can be learned from reptilian nest raiders & egg huggers?. Arizona State University, West Campus, Phoenix, AZ (Sep 2008).
  • DF DeNardo. Surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets; a Gila monsters perspective. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (May 2008).
  • JR Davis and DF DeNardo. Lizards living in luxury? The biological effects of living on the links for a desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). World Scientific Congress of Golf, Chandler, AZ (Mar 2008).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z.R. and DeNardo, D.F. Implications of python egg brooding behavior on clutch gaseous micro-environment and metabolic rate. GELSS Symposium at ASU, Tempe, AZ (Feb 2008).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z.R., Brashears, J.B., and DeNardo, D.F. Do Children's python (Antaresia childreni) eggshells mediate a trade-off between embryonic water balance and metabolic gas exchange?. SICB Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX (Jan 2008).
  • DF DeNardo. In search of the physiological role of exendin-4 in its native organism, the Gila monster. Novo Nordisk, Måløv, Denmark (Jan 2008).
  • DF DeNardo. Implications of python egg brooding behavior on clutch gaseous micro-environment and metabolic rate. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting, San Antonio, TX (Jan 2008).
  • Stahlschmidt, Z.R. and DeNardo, D.F. Implications of python egg brooding behavior on clutch gaseous micro-environment and metabolic rate. SICB Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX (Jan 2008).
  • Denardo, Dale. Surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets. (Sep 2006).
  • Christel, C, Denardo, Dale, Boback, S, Secor, S. The desert's little dinosaurs: post-feeding metabolic and intestinal responses of Gila monsters. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists meeting (Jul 2006).
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale. Davis and DeNardo, "Storage of dilute urine in the Gila Monster: Do hydric benefits impose energetic costs?". American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists meeting (Jul 2006).
  • Denardo, Dale, Lourdais, O, Hoffman, T. Maternal brooding in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni) promotes egg water balance. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2006).
  • Lourdais, O, Denardo, Dale, Heulin, B. Does gravidity influence thermoregulation in an oviparous reptile?. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2006).
  • Denardo, Dale. Surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets. University Club Colloquial Series, Arizona State University (Nov 2005).
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale, Mattlin, A, Gallardo, L. The right place at the right time: Behavioral thermoregulation in the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum). Animal Behavior Society (Aug 2005).
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale, Mattlin, A, Gallardo, L. The right place at the right time: Behavioral thermoregulation in the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum) Arizona State University. Animal Behavior Society (Aug 2005).
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Why are male rattlesnakes larger than females?. Biology of the Rattlesnakes Symposium (May 2005).
  • Denardo, Dale. Clinical techniques in reptile reproduction. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine 446C (May 2005).
  • Denardo, Dale, DeNardo, D. Effects of testosterone on growth, body composition, and home range size in male Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert III (Apr 2005).
  • Denardo, Dale, Gallardo, L, Davis, J, Mattlin, A. The interaction between temperature, water balance, and activity in Gila monsters: a tightrope for survival. Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert III (Apr 2005).
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Effects of testosterone on growth, body composition, and home range size in male Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert III (Apr 2005).
  • Davis, J, Taylor, E, Malawy, M, Denardo, Dale. The use of implanted semicontinuous temperature loggers to estimate surface activity of ectotherms. Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert III (Apr 2005).
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale. Storage of dilute urine in the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum): Do hydric benefits impose energetic costs? Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert III (Apr 2005).
  • Davis, J, Taylor, E, Malawy, M, Denardo, Dale. The use of implanted semicontinuous temperature loggers to estimate surface activity of ectotherms. Graduates in Earth, Life, and Social Sciences Symposium (Feb 2005).
  • Christel, C, Denardo, Dale. Release of exendin-4 is controlled by mechanical action in Gila Monsters, Heloderma suspectum. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2005).
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale. The contribution of urinary bladder water to hydrostasis in the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum). Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2005).
  • Davis, J, Taylor, E, Malawy, M, Denardo, Dale. The use of implanted semicontinuous temperature loggers to estimate surface activity of ectotherms. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2005).
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Why are male rattlesnakes larger than females?. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting (Jan 2005).
  • Denardo, Dale. Gila monsters: surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets?. LSC 438, Arizona State University - West (Oct 2004).
  • Malawy, M, Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Thermal biology of western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox)in the Sonoran Desert. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists annual meeting (Jun 2004).
  • Malawy, M, Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Thermal biology and its role in seasonal intra-specific aggregation and dispersal of western diamond-backed rattlesnakes. Graduates in the Earth, Life and Social Sciences annual symposium (Feb 2004).
  • Denardo, Dale. Namibia: in search of geckos, adders, and answers. Chicago Herpetological Society (Dec 2003).
  • Denardo, Dale. Dystocia in reptiles. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine 446C (May 2003).
  • Denardo, Dale. Reptile reproductive physiology. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine 446C (May 2003).
  • Denardo, Dale. Thermoregulation in Reptiles. Animal Science 47 (Jan 2003).
  • Denardo, Dale. Reptile thermal biology: a veterinary perspective. Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians (Oct 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Reptiles. ASU Child Development Center. (Oct 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Gila monsters and rattlesnakes: surviving in the desert without air conditioning, 7-11's, and Las Vegas buffets. Southern Nevada Herpetological Society (Sep 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Dystocia in reptiles. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine (Jun 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Reptile reproductive physiology. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine (Jun 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Reproductive investment in the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): what do the numbers tell us?. Current Research on Herpetofauna of the Sonoran Desert (Apr 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Namibia: in search of geckos, adders, and answers. Tucson Herpetological Society (Feb 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. Rattlesnakes: an icon of the American southwest and a good research model. Mayo Clinic (Feb 2002).
  • Denardo, Dale. The interrelationship between the environment and physiology: a look at the regulation of reproduction in the wild. Contra Costa County California Veterinary Medical Association (Dec 2001).
  • Christel, C., Denardo, Dale. Gila monster digestion and exendin-4: absence of exendin-4 effect on metabolism, intestinal performance, or plasma nutrient concentrations. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Davis, J., Denardo, Dale. Alternate overwintering strategies in the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum: implications of refuge location on timing and duration of inactivity, thermal biology, and energetics. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Davis, J., Denardo, Dale. Dealing with drought in the Sonoran Desert: a Gila Monster’s perspective. Desert Tortoise Council meeting
  • Davis, J., Denardo, Dale. Temperature-based activity estimation (TBAE): an analysis of accuracy in two sympatric ectotherms. Desert Tortoise Council meeting
  • Davis, J., Denardo, Dale. The effect of hydration state on activity in a free-ranging Sonoran Desert lizard, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Denardo, Dale. Rattlesnakes and Gila monsters – unique desert residents deserving of our respect. South Mountain Festiva
  • Denardo, Dale. Seasonality of activity, body temperature, and refuge selection in a Sonoran Desert population of Heloderma suspectum. Desert Tortoise Council meeting
  • Denardo, Dale. Surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets. South Mountain Festiva
  • Denardo, Dale. Surviving in the desert without air-conditioning, plumbing, and supermarkets; a Gila monsters perspective. Departmental Seminar
  • Denardo, Dale. The use of pseudoserpential thermometry to assess the impact of nest site selection and facultative endothermy on the thermoregulation of embryonic development in pythons. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Denardo, Dale. Thermoregulation in reptiles. Animal Science 47
  • Hoffman, T., Walsberg, G., Denardo, Dale. Triple partitioning of total evaporation reveals the cloaca as a site of thermoregulatory important rates of evaporative cooling in Inca doves, Columbina inca,. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Stahlschmidt, Z., Denardo, Dale. Implications of brooding python postural changes on embryonic gas exchange and water loss. Soc. for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale, Gallardo, L, Mattlin, A. Meeting Thermal Challenges: seasonal activity and thermal profiles of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting
  • Denardo, Dale. Clinical applications in reptile reproduction. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Denardo, Dale. Essentials of reproductive physiology for the reptile practitioner. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Denardo, Dale. Effects of food supplementation on the physiology and behavior of female Western Diamond-backed Ratt. American Society of Icthyologists and Herpetologists
  • Denardo, Dale. Is testosterone involved in the sexual size dimorphism of the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Cr. American Society of Icthyologists and Herpetologists
  • Denardo, Dale. Physiological trade-offs in maintaining homeostasis in an extreme environment. American Association for Lab Animal Science
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale, Malawy, M. A comparison between point- and semi-continuous sampling for assessing body temperature in a free-ranging ectotherm. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale, Malawy, M. Effects of food supplementation on the reproductive ecology of female Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting
  • Christel, C, Denardo, Dale. Release of exendin-4 is controlled by mechanical action in Gila Monsters, Heloderma suspectum. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Denardo, Dale. How I treat dystocia in snakes. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Denardo, Dale. Patient History: what you need to know and why. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Denardo, Dale. Stress and its influence on clinical diseases of reptiles. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Denardo, Dale. Understanding and meeting the thermal needs of the reptile patient. North American Veterinary Conference
  • Davis, J, Denardo, Dale. The contribution of urinary bladder water to hydrostasis in the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum). Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Davis, J, Taylor, E, Malawy, M, Denardo, Dale. The use of implanted semicontinuous temperature loggers to estimate surface activity of ectotherms. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
  • Taylor, E, Denardo, Dale. Why are male rattlesnakes larger than females?. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting
Service

1. Research experience for undergraduates:  I currently have 6 undergraduate researchers intimately involves in research projects within my lab, and I have had 50 such students over the past 5 years.  Many of these students remain in the lab for over a year, and some for three years.  The students reflect the culturally diverse population at Arizona State University. 

2. Enhancement of career guidance mechanisms: Currently a faculty representative working with the School of Life Sciences advising office to revise our approach to guidance from one focusing on the acquisition of a degree to one emphasizing effective preparation for the chosen career.

3. Dissemination of scientific knowledge to the general public: Utilize the inherent curiosity of reptiles to build an appreciation for the animals, the environment, and the biological sciences.  Examples of my involvement in television documentaries, which have the broadest reach of the various mechanisms:

National Geographic: United States of Animals (2016). 30-minute show that includes a segment on our research on Gila monsters.

BBC America - Wild Things with Dominic Monaghan (2014). My research with Gila monsters featured as one of 5 Sonoran Desert topics. Airdate TBD.

Discovery Channel Canada - Daily Planet. (2010). 6-minute segment featuring our research on Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum).  Airdate: January 20, 2010.

Wild Detectives, National Geographic (2007), episode 9 (with lions), "Gila Monsters". 3-minute "Blue's Clues"-like child detective clip on Gila monster's with Dr. DeNardo.

ASU Research Review: Tracking the Gila Monsters. 8-minute segment featuring our research on Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum).  Airdate: November 16, 2005.

National Geographic: Reptile Wild with Dr. Brady Barr, Arizona Rattlers (2003). 30-minute show predominantly featuring our field research (mostly Gila monsters, but also western diamond-backed rattlesnakes)

Arizona Wildlife Views: Gila Monsters (2003). 10-minute segment on our Gila monster field research

Discovery Channel: Tracking Deadly Vipers (2002) – 60-minute show, with our western diamond-backed rattlesnake field research being one of six pit viper studies featured.

National Geographic: Gila Monsters (2001). 30-minute show with our research on Gila monsters being the primary focus.

ASU Research Review (2001). 10-minute segment on our western diamond-backed rattlesnake research