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Carol Johnston

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Asc Dir (FSC) & Professor
Faculty, DTPHX Campus, Mailcode 3251
Asc Dir (FSC) & Professor
Faculty w/Admin Appointment, DTPHX Campus, Mailcode 9020
Asc Dir (FSC) & Professor
Faculty w/Admin Appointment, DTPHX Campus, Mailcode 9020
Biography

Carol S. Johnston is Professor and Associate Director of the Nutrition Program in the School of Nutrition and Health Promotion at Arizona State University.  She received her BS in nutrition from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and her MS in nutrition and PhD in biological sciences from the University of Texas, Austin.  She teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses and has an active research program.  She has published over 100 research articles and book chapters, and she is often quoted in popular magazines reporting nutrition news.  She is an expert in vitamin C metabolism, the medicinal use of vinegar, high protein/low carbohydrate diets for weight loss, and vegetarian diets.  She currently chairs the Institutional Review Board at ASU which oversees human subject research at the University.  She holds an elected position on an Expert Committee of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia in Washington DC.  She has been recognized on multiple occasions for her teaching excellence at ASU, and she has received several national awards from the American College of Nutrition for her professional and academic accomplishments.  

Education

PhD Biological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, 1986

MS Nutrition, The University of Texas, Austin, 1983

BS Nutrition, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979

Research Interests

Vitamin C metabolism, diabetic diets, obesity, and vegetarian nutrition. Specific topics include the role of vitamin C nutrition in fat oxidation, adiposity risk, and physical activity; the impact of vinegar ingestion in managing the diabetic condition; the relationships between food and mental health; and nutrient requirements of vegetarians.

 

Publications
  • Carol Johnston, C Gaas. Vinegar: Medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect. Medscape General Medicine (2006).
  • Carol Johnston, S Tjonn, P Swan, A White, H Hutchins, B Sears. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage as compared to non-ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2006).
  • D Benyshek, Carol Johnston, J Martin. Glucose metabolism is altered in the adequately-nourished grand-offspring (F3 generation) of rats malnourished in utero. Diabetologia (2006).
  • D Winham, Carol Johnston, K Rhoda. Maternal weight gain is associated with infant insulin concentrations during the first year of life. Diabetes Care (2006).
  • A Hutchins, I McIver, Carol Johnston. Hypertensive crisis associated with high dose soy isoflavone supplementation in a post-menopausal woman: a case report. BMC Women's Health (2005).
  • A Hutchins, I McIver, Carol Johnston. Soy isoflavone and ascorbic acid supplementation alone or in combination minimally affect plasma lipid peroxides in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2005).
  • Carol Johnston. Strategies for healthy weight loss: from vitamin C to the glycemic index. Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2005).
  • Carol Johnston. Uncle Sam's Diet Sensation: MyPyramid -- An Overview and Commentary. Medscape General Medicine (2005).
  • Carol Johnston, A Buller. Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycemia. Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2005).
  • Carol Johnston, J Hale. Oxidation of ascorbic acid in stored orange juice is associated with reduced plasma vitamin C concentrations and elevated lipid peroxides. Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2005).
  • J Hathcock, A Dickinson, A Azzi, J Blumberg, B Frei, Carol Johnston, L Packer, S Parthasarathy, M Traber. Potential harm of vitamin E supplementation (letter reply). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2005).
  • J Hathcock, Kraemer Klaus, L Packer, S Parthasarathy, H Sies, M Traber, A Dickinson, A Azzi, J Blumberg, T Bray, B Frei, I Jialal, Carol Johnston, F Kelly. Vitamins E and C - safe within broad ranges of intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2005).
  • Carol Johnston, C Kim, A Buller. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care (2004).
  • Carol Johnston, S Tjonn, P Swan. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition (2004).
  • D Benyshek, Carol Johnston, J Martin. Post-natal diet determines insulin resistance in fetally malnourished, low birthweight rats (F1) but diet does not modify the insulin resistance of their offspring (F2). Life Sciences (2004).
  • J Hampl, C Taylor, Carol Johnston. Vitamin C Deficiency and Depletion in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. American Journal of Public Health (2004).
  • Jeffrey Hampl, S Levinson, L Garcia, Carol Johnston. Project GLEAN: Evaluation of a School-Based, Gleaned-Food Distribution Program. J Sustain Agr (2004).
  • Carol Johnston, C Dancho, G Strong. Orange juice ingestion and supplemental vitamin C are equally effective a reducing plasma lipid peroxidation in healthy adult women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2003).
  • . . Beverage Impacts on Health and Nutrition (2003).
  • C Venti, Carol Johnston. Modified Food Guide Pyramid for Lactovegetarians and vegans. Journal of Nutrition (2002).
  • Carol Johnston, C Day, P Swan. Post-prandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2002).
  • Carol Johnston, D Bowling. Bioavailability of oxidized vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (letter) (2002).
  • Carol Johnston, D Bowling. Stability of ascorbic acid in commercially available orange juices. Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2002).
  • M Huso, J Hampl, Carol Johnston, P Swan. Creatine supplementation influences substrate utilization at rest. Journal of Applied Physiology (2002).
  • . . The Antioxidant Vitamins C and E (2002).
  • Carol Johnston, S Cox. Plasma-saturating intakes of vitamin C confer maximal antioxidant protection to plasma. Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2001).
  • D Benyshek, J Martin, Carol Johnston. A reconsideration of the origins of the type 2 diabetes epidemic among Native Americans and the implications for community-based interventions. Medical Anthropology (2001).
  • J Hampl, Carol Johnston, R Mills. And should we die?: Scourge of black-leg (scurvy) on the Mormon Trail. Nutrition (2001).
  • . . Present Knowledge in Nutrition (2001).
  • Johnston, Carol S (Author) ,Steinberg, F M (Author) ,Rucker, R B (Author) . Ascorbic Acid. Handbook of Vitamins (2001).
  • C Taylor, J Hampl, Carol Johnston. Low intakes of vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits, lead to inadequate vitamin C intakes among adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000).
  • Carol Johnston, C Taylor, J Hampl. More Americans are eating '5 A Day' but intakes of dark green and cruciferous vegetables remain low. Journal of Nutrition (2000).
  • Carol Johnston, W Monte. Infant formula ingestion is associated with the development of diabetes in the BB/Wor rat. Life Sciences (2000).
  • J Martin, Carol Johnston, T Han, D Benyshek. Nutritional origins of insulin resistance: an animal model for diabetes-prone populations. Journal of Nutrition (2000).
Research Activity
  • Tasevska,Natasha*, Johnston,Carol S. Investigation of Biomarkers for Sugars Intake A Controlled Feeding Study. HHS-NIH-NCI(7/1/2015 - 6/30/2020).
  • Johnston,Carol S*. The Effects of Re-Engineered Carbohydrates on Metabolic Syndrome (ASUF 30006283). ASU FDN(8/4/2014 - 2/29/2016).
  • Sweazea,Karen Leanna*, Johnston,Carol S. Evaluation of the Anti-aging Properties of Product B. (8/1/2013 - 11/30/2014).
  • Sweazea,Karen Leanna*, Johnston,Carol S. Almond Ingestion to Reduce Hemoglobin A1C in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Almond Board of CA(7/1/2012 - 12/31/2013).
  • Johnston,Carol S*. Effects of Peanut Products on Satiety and Weight Management in an Overweight Campus Community. Peanut Inst(12/1/2010 - 11/30/2011).
  • Martin,Keith Robert*, Johnston,Carol S. Effect of a polysaccharide supplement with Aloe on the bioavailability of dietary antioxidants in healthy adults. (2/7/2010 - 12/31/2011).
  • Winham,Donna M*, Hutchins,Andrea May, Johnston,Carol S. Impact of Daily Navy Bean Consumption on Biomarkers for Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk. Bush Brothers(8/1/2005 - 9/30/2006).
  • Johnston,Carol S*, Swan,Pamela D. The Impact of Vitamin C Status on Fat Oxidation, Adiponectin Concentrations, and Body Mass. GENL MILLS/BELL INST OF HEALTH(5/1/2005 - 4/30/2006).
  • Hutchins,Andrea May*, Johnston,Carol S. The Role of Insulin Sensitivity in the Success of Weight Loss Diets. PFEIFFER RESEARCH FDN(8/1/2004 - 7/31/2005).
  • Johnston,Carol S*. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Healthfulness of Two Popular Low Carbohydrate Diets - Atkins versus the Zone. INFLAMMATION RESEARCH FDN(8/1/2004 - 7/31/2005).
  • Winham,Donna M*, Hutchins,Andrea May, Johnston,Carol S. Impact of Long-Term Chickpea Consumption on Biomarkers for Heat Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk. MICHIGAN STATE UNIV(6/1/2004 - 5/31/2006).
  • Johnston,Carol S*. ESTER C. GRANT: VITAMIN C METABOLISM. INTER-CAL CORP, INC(8/15/1991 - 2/29/1992).
Summer 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 799Dissertation
Spring 2017
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
OBS 599Thesis
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
EXW 791Seminar
NTR 791Seminar
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Fall 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 500Research Methods
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Summer 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
OBS 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Spring 2016
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
OBS 599Thesis
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 791Seminar
EXW 791Seminar
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Fall 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 500Research Methods
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
OBS 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Summer 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Spring 2015
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
EXW 791Seminar
NTR 791Seminar
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Fall 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 500Research Methods
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Summer 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Spring 2014
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 448Community Nutrition
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 548Advanced Community Nutrition
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
EXW 791Seminar
NTR 791Seminar
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Fall 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 500Research Methods
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Summer 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
BIO 495Undergraduate Research
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Spring 2013
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
EXW 791Seminar
NTR 791Seminar
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Fall 2012
Course NumberCourse Title
NTR 440Advanced Human Nutrition I
NTR 492Honors Directed Study
NTR 493Honors Thesis
NTR 499Individualized Instruction
NTR 500Research Methods
NTR 540Adv Micronutrient Metabolism
NTR 590Reading and Conference
NTR 592Research
NTR 593Applied Project
NTR 599Thesis
NTR 690Reading and Conference
NTR 692Research
NTR 784Internship
NTR 792Research
NTR 799Dissertation
Presentations

Undergraduate Level:  Human Nutrition; Advanced Human Nutrition I:  Micronutrient Metabolism

Graduate Level:  Research Methods in Nutrition; Vegetarian Nutrition; Nutrition and Immunology; Doctoral Professional Seminar

Medical School Lectures (UA College of Medicine):  Vitamin C:  Nutrition and Metabolism; B Vitamins:  Nutrition and Metabolism, Micronutrients and Immunity

Expertise Areas